MAY 2022- Transart Intensive Session 17: Lost Is Found
Remodeled Barn-Art Studio, cropped image
WHAT’S LOST IS FOUND – A PRIMER
Three Exercises for Defining New Positionalities within Creative Research
By: Tia Halliday
Assignment Due Prior to Workshop beginning on May 28th
Assignment Introduction & Reading
This pre-workshop assignment includes three short exercises and will take the place of or supplement your Reading Diary this week. Each exercise should take a minimum of 15 minutes to complete (approximately 45 minutes in total), and they are meant as an enjoyable and affirming activity. Each exercise is written as a creative, or stream-of-consciousness writing prompt, so feel free to complete them in a written fashion (in a diary or journal) if you wish. However, this assignment is meant to be very open ended, therefore participants are encouraged to explore the prompts or exercises in a way that feels most helpful or exploratory for them (i.e., through movement, drawing, academic writing etc.). Participants are encouraged to spend longer on the exercises if they wish to.
These exercises are very loosely informed by the introductory section of Sara Ahmed’s Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others. This reading is meant as a primer and therefore you are encouraged to read this section (PDF copy provided to you) prior to completing your exercises. The reading is meant as an open-ended “primer” to the assignment.
New insights prompted by this assignment and approaches taken by participants will be discussed and explored further in the workshop. Participants will share their experience of the assignment amongst each other (themselves…?) in the workshop.
About the Exercises:
Each of the three exercises below is designed to help you shift your perspective to (amongst, or within) your work. Each component is designed to emphasize different ways of engaging with the ideas, processes, activities, and physical ephemera we create as artists and researchers. Through this three-part process, it is hoped that you will have begun to develop new touchpoints, “holds” to grab onto, or areas of familiarization within your work. This assignment is written in an open-ended and poetic manner as to lay the groundwork for open-ended creative work. There are no “right” (do you mean there are no “wrong” answers?) answers or “right” (again…” wrong”) way to approach this activity.
*Please take a moment before completing these exercises to “centre” yourself and leave the day behind. Forget the deadlines, the dirty dishes, and the emails not yet sent. Take a few deep breaths and a quiet moment.
1. Dwelling Within
If your practice was an interior space, what would it look like? To dwell within means looking at your practice and research from the inside out. If you were to flip your phenomenon of investigation, what would be exposed? What lingers in the interior of your ideas? What is ready for the light of day and what is yet to be formed? What objects, sensations, textures, or subjects yet-to-be currently are residing upon the interiors of your current research? What new shapes are formed from this new orientation? Consider what is on the outside and how this structure shapes the spatiality of the interior framework, the mind, the imagination, the studio, the paragraph, the workshop.
TH: If your practice was an interior space, what would it look like?
GD: If my practice was an interior space it would look like a big, gorgeous, reconditioned, enormous, newly renovated, sturdy old barn interior, with high ceilings, huge walls, wood plank flooring, and hand carved wood post-and- beam construction. It would look perfectly ventilated…neither damp, nor overly dry. The internal thermostat and humidity controls would regulate the atmosphere, so it would look like it smells, which is fabulous.
Each interior space within it would be evenly lit and automatically adjusts to the amount of natural light present. It appears to have a creative, inviting, warm ambience. The front space would look like a large, elegant gallery with a beautiful, bathroom on the side. The middle of the renovated barn would look like an enormous functional painting and print studios with beautiful, state-of-the art equipment. Within the studio there would appear to be enameled slop sinks, work benches, shelving for materials, a room to stretching and store new canvases, and any other needed supplies, i.e., paints, brushes, printers, canvas, inks, etc. Within the interior of the back middle of the barn, there would appear to be accessible business and research areas, well stocked with bookcases, desks, and a comfortable, fun seating for artist, buyer, curator, collector, critic, friend, gallerist guests. The interior of the back of the barn would look like it has a shipping/receiving area with movable storage racks filled with completed artworks that are regularly shown and sold.
TH: If you were to flip your phenomenon of investigation, what would be exposed?
GD: If I were to flip my phenomenon of investigation what would be exposed is that I do not know if my phenomenon of investigation is in reference to the first question/answer, or if it is in reference to my practice, so, my confusion would be exposed.
TH: What lingers in the interior of your ideas?
GD: What lingers in the interiors of my ideas is the fear that they are not good ideas.
TH: What is ready for the light of day and what is yet to be formed?
GD: What is ready for the light of day is what I have begun in my praxis, or studio work, which is well underway. While it does make me feel very vulnerable to be publicly documenting my underpaintings and intermediate phases of my work, I do photograph these stages and post via Instagram.
And what is yet to be formed is the resolution of my praxis or studio work, and a final exhibition. More anxiety producing, if not terrifying, is that my entire 40,000-word dissertation (in UK called a thesis) is yet to be formed.
TH: What objects, sensations, textures, or subjects yet-to-be currently are residing upon the interiors of your current research?” And “What new shapes are formed from this new orientation?
GD: In my mind, the yet-to-be subjects may be flat geometric painted, stenciled, or printed squares and/or regular, flat geometric circles. I imagine either or both on the outside, as the “top layer” …or the icing on the cake, or, spatially, the roof atop the structure… so to speak.
TH: Consider what is on the outside and how this structure shapes the spatiality of the interior framework, the mind, the imagination, the studio, the paragraph, the workshop.
GD: When I consider the reconditioned barn wood that is on the outside and how the barn itself shapes the spatiality of the interior framework, the mind, the imagination, the studio, the paragraph, the workshop, I am content to create and have my being within it…every day.
2. From Within Looking Out
Firmly supported within the structures and interior architectures of your own making and investigation, what happens when your head pops out to take-in what lays around you? How does your own dwelling shape that exterior space? What conversation does your research have with what lays beyond? Do your ideas speak in hushed tones? And if so, who are they speaking to? How do the shapes and spaces formed by your own ideas, your work, your approach, frame what you see beyond you? How does “out there” etch the surface of your skin? What lens have you formed out of your own blood, sweat and tears and how does the world seem when you look through it?
TH: Firmly supported within the structures and interior architectures of your own making and investigation, what happens when your head pops out to take-in what lays around you?
GD: Firmly supported within the structures and interior architectures of my own making and investigation, what happens when my head pops out to take-in what lays around me is that I see that during the past six months I have gotten my praxis or studio work well underway. It currently consists of more than two dozen paintings that I am deeply engaged with.
TH: How does your own dwelling shape that exterior space?
GD: My own dwelling in them shapes it more as an interior, somewhat esoteric space, rather than as an exterior space.
TH: What conversation does your research have with what lays beyond?
GD: My conversation and research are engaged with the larger discussion of identities…color, race, gender, and otherness, and with the pre-feminist origins and history of abstract painting.
TH: Do your ideas speak in hushed tones?
GD: In some ways, my ideas speak in hushed tones, and in other ways, not so much.
TH: And if so, who are they speaking to?
GD: Regardless, who my ideas speak to is simultaneously broad-ranging, at the same time, a very specifically art-historically literate crowd. In that way, it is v esoteric.
TH: How do the shapes and spaces formed by your own ideas, your work, your approach, frame what you see beyond you?
GD: The shapes and spaces formed by my own ideas, my work, my approach, frame what I see beyond in such a way as to broaden the definition of abstraction, to make it more inclusive, and maybe a bit more accessible…at least to 21st Century artist practitioners.
TH: How does “out there” etch the surface of your skin?
GD: “Out there” etches the surface of my skin in such a way as to remind me that it is not a pinkish tone of dominant Anglo skin tones, but instead is the Olive-y complexion of my Italian, Greek, Northwest Asian, Eastern European, and North African fore-bearers.
TH: What lens have you formed out of your own blood, sweat and tears and how does the world seem when you look through it?
GD: The lens I have formed out of my own blood, sweat and tears is my own kaleidoscopic voice comprised of my multi-faceted “otherness”. And when I look through it, the world seems a blank canvas, upon which I am compelled to paint.
3. Nestled Against
What does it feel like to get up close and fondle the fruits of your research? Staying very still, take a moment to observe what new physical, whimsical or theoretical ephemera emerge. Named or currently un-nameable, what does it all look like up-close? The stuff that everyone sees, or reads, or considers? What if you were to drag a finger, the bottom of a foot or your cheek against it - what would be revealed? What is etched on the surface and what is impacted on your skin? What does this orientation really feel like? I mean some would say that to take look at our work and research from the outside is a “foreign” positionality all its own. Or is it? Is this proximity comforting or unnerving? What tickles? What penetrates? What sticks? What stays?
TH: “What does it feel like to get up close and fondle the fruits of your research?”
GD: When I get up close and fondle the fruits of my research if feels like foreplay.
TH: “Staying very still, take a moment to observe what new physical, whimsical or theoretical ephemera emerge. Named or currently un-nameable, what does it all look like up-close?”
GD: When I stay very still and take a moment to observe what new physical, whimsical or theoretical ephemera emerges, it all looks like sex and birth and death… very up close and personal.
TH: “The stuff that everyone sees, or reads, or considers?”
GD: The stuff that everyone sees, or reads, or considers of late is Italian Renaissance and Pre-Raphaelite skin tones and palettes.
TH: What if you were to drag a finger, the bottom of a foot or your cheek against it - what would be revealed?
GD: If I were drag my finger, the bottom of my foot or my cheek against it, “A Portrait of the Artist as an Aging, Olive-Skinned, Italian American Woman” is revealed.
TH: What is etched on the surface and what is impacted on your skin?
GD: All of it is etched on the surface and impacts my experience in and of my own skin.
TH: What does this orientation really feel like? I mean some would say that to take look at our work and research from the outside is a “foreign” positionality all its own.
GD: This orientation really feels like it looks…abstracted, sensuous, psychologically evocative, and emotional. I mean some would say that to take look at my work and research from the outside is a “foreign” positionality all its own. And, from the dominating non-dominant Anglo male perspective, it is.
TH: Is this proximity comforting or unnerving?
GD: This proximity is both comforting and unnerving.
TH: What tickles?
GD: The explorations tickle.
TH: What penetrates?
GD: What penetrates is the awe at filling in what had previously been overlooked, discounted, or ignored, if not “erased”.
TH: What sticks?
GD: What sticks is the energy it generates, which in turn provides my on-going interest and engagement with it.
TH: What stays?
GD: What stays is the persistence of the overall project, which includes on-going:
-Literature Review Reading, Note-taking, constructing the working bibliographies
-Bi-weekly or monthly supervisory meetings and note writing
-Weekly Studio praxis, photo documentation, and follow-up journaling
-Creative research journal and eDoc documentations…of all of it
-Monthly cohort meetings/studio visits
May 2022- Supervisory Meetings 12 & 13 Notes
Anastasia Beverly Hills' Modern Renaissance Eyeshadow Palette, similar to what inspired some of my recent paintings' intermediate phase color pallet, 2022
Supervision meetings 12 & 13 Notes- 13 May 2022
Friday 13 May 2022 LJMU Supervisory Meeting Notes
Attending on Friday 13 May from 10-11 AM EST:
Lead Supervisor Mark Roughley, TT Supervisor
and LJMU PGR/TT practice-based PhD candidate Gina Dominique
Attending on Friday 13 May from Noon-2PM EST:
Transart Supervisor Borinquen Gallo
and LJMU PGR/TT practice-based PhD candidate Gina Dominique
Mark and Gina met first and discussed eDoc issues re: "Project History" and "Training Record" overlapping, but not mirroring one another. I will report back to him after my scheduled May 19, 2022 meeting with Victoria Sheppard regarding clarification, where to enter what on eDoc.
We also discussed my updated praxis work, specifically the addition of "intermediate" painting applications and the color scheme. I noted that during one of Robyn Ferrell's and my supervisory meetings earlier this year, I vacillated between an approach to this intermediate phase...not sure if I should go for a scientifically based color palette, or one inspired by contemporary make-up/beauty product palettes. Without hesitation Robyn said the contemporary make-up inspired palette, so I went that direction with it.
Mark shared pics of his and his teams use of a primary palette to create skin tones on their digitally reconstructed facial models. We discussed my upcoming July travel to LJMU/Transart residency. Mark stated he has reached out to one of the LJMU print professors, regarding a printer that can might work on paintings...with "paint-like" inks. They stated no printer in the shop works like this. So they are looking into a printer that may exist and be made available to me during the 2nd week of my 2 week LJMU-Transart July residency, via Manchester University's print studio.
THEN, DURING MY AND BORINQUEN GALLO'S NOON-2PM EST meeting, we discussed the following:
Borinquen gave me a lot of positive feedback and encouragement re: my updates (or intermediate phase) of my current series of paintings. Among many more remarks and observations, all of which I really appreciate, she stated that at this stage the paintings appear to have:
1. Something of a Pre-Raphaelite color palette. (I told her that Robyn had similar reaction, and stated that I might investigate those as well as Italian Renaissance painting skin tone palettes.)
2. It is a good thing that I am in the midst of so very many canvases as it keeps me from over-working any one of them. (haha)
3. Two distinct and dynamic "layers" that create a sense of depth-of-field and richness.
4. And while creating this multi-layered effect or approach, I am so far, able to maintain very energetic, fresh mark-making.
5. A uniquely abstract gestural approach to identity-based art. In this way, she sees that it "adds to" (if not updates) many of the assertions (if not complaints) made or about by the male-dominant mid-20th C. AbEx painters works...in that this work is clearly immersed in the larger contemporary cultural dialog re: color, race, gender, etc.. Whereas almost all of the work by contemporary artists (she named several, specifically artists of color) currently dealing with these very issues, all within her awareness, have a similar "figurative" approaches...either painting very naturalistic/realistic figuration, expressive figuration, or abstracted figuration modes.
Borinquen also generously outlined an approach I might adopt to writing my Thesis/Dissertation. She asked me to set up a shared document via Google Docs, where I outline and eventually write my thesis. She suggested to begin with, it include these categories:
1. Introduction-Personal narrative…state how I became interested in my subject/project topic. Include top 3 research questions…outline them. To answer these questions state that I undertook an art based self-study consisting of …here describe my process of making of the paintings. (I.e., Liminality-PAINTING AS A RECLAMATION PRACTICE…creatively occupying the "negative space" or "erasure"…IDENTITY POLITICS and abstract painting…reference Helene Cixous’s encouraging women to “write with white ink…in-between the lines…essentially in the negative space. Connect that to artists like C. Sherman, flipping the script…being the artist and the muse, and to Rachel Whiteread’s practice and work, which is to cast the negative space…)
2. Methodology-articulate more clearly and with more detail, my methodology
3. Literature review-as per Robyn Ferrell, arrange what I already have into different topic categories…they may become the chapters
4. Data Collection- To create my thesis, weave together or triangulate these three categories of data collection:
a) Literature review
b) Praxis and journal notes about my process/thoughts/evolutionary
c) Interview notes on abstract painters processes, practices, literary
5. Data Analysis-categories that may become the thesis/dissertation’s chapters…Borinquen’s notes: Data Analysis - you will articulate categories/themes/chapters of the book here…this is where you will triangulate the data collected from both your data collection you will let us know what it means and fold in related literature and quotes from both your studio journaling notes/ and interviewees quotes of both other artists (and yourself)
6. Findings- (7-10 are likely)…Borinquen’s notes: “what emerges from your data analysis - what did you discover?”
7. Conclusions… what these findings mean for the field at large - and based on this findings I offer recommendations…Borinquen’s notes: “…And in conclusion - re-summarize the findings, and state what do these findings mean for the field at large - and based on this findings you can offer recommendations.”
Agreed action points (to be completed after these May meetings)
Gina, Mark and Borinquen established the following action points:
1. May 2022-
a) Create and share the outlined above google doc.
b) Attend the next and final "required" Transart Intensive, completing the pre-session assignment.
c) Complete TT CRJ/blog posts and eDoc summaries, and Intensive follow-up notes, etc.
2. June-through remainder of PhD-
a) Continue my praxis/painting development by experimenting on the dozen "test" paper paintings that I have been experiment with. Specifically, use the lines-of-squares stencils that I ordered and received.
b) And, equally important, going forward, JOURNAL about my studio praxis/processes and thoughts immediately after each of my studio sessions. (I relayed to Borinquen how I do maintain this very practice following all of my supervisory meeting notes. It helps me summarize the main points, details, as well as capture some of the meetings' nuances or spirit.) I really appreciate BG's suggestion for me to do this after painting. If she's suggested this previously, today I heard her, and I can envision why it will assist my thesis/dissertation writing.)
c) Meet for two previously scheduled Supervisory meetings:
One: Mark and I, Gina have a Friday, June 10 meeting scheduled at 10 AM EST
Two: Robyn Ferrell and I will meet again on Wednesday, June 15 at 5 PM EST
d) Apply for and obtain LJMU permission to conduct interviews.
e) Construct an interview outline...write 3-5 questions
3, July- Attend the on-site LJMU-Transart residency in Liverpool
4. Fall 2022:
a) Finalize list of interviewees
b) Schedule interviews
c) Conduct interviews, of 2 or 4 female abstract artists who also use self-identifying color in their/our work, as well as of myself (today, independently of one another, both Mark and Borinquen emphasized this!)...making sure that I use the same:
-Set of questions
-Time keeping method
-Amount of time to asking/answer each question
-Method of transcription
-Method of analysisConduct interviews of:
d) Work throughout each month on organizing and re-organizing my thesis/dissertation outline, my chapter topics, sorting my literary review, etc.
May 2022- Studio Praxis
Gina Dominique, Tourbillion 6, Acrylic on canvas, 14 x 14", 2020, cropped
WAAM Active Members’ Spring Exhibition
One of my "Tourbillion" series paintings was included in the Woodstock Artists Association and Museum's main gallery Spring 2022 exhibition. The show dates were March 25 – May 8, 2022. My piece, Tourbillion 6, image attached, was a WAAM Instagram Featured post. I completed the series between November 2020-early March 2021, just prior to the Covid 19 pandemic hitting the USA. As a whole, the series pre-figures the kind of emotional turmoil the world was just about to embark on. Now I think, "wow, timely work and vision."
May 2022- Training Session
Karen Ami, Mourning, Ma, ceramic relief, 2022, cropped
Transart PhD cohort 2021 research pod did a May 2022 zoom studio visit with Karen Ami. She generously and graciously shared insights and inspiration for her work, various working methods, techniques and materials. The cropped image here is from her April 2022 Intensive "How To Raise A Ghost" assignment, "Mourning, Ma", which she constructed for her three sons, who are instructed, upon her death, to crack the glass vial within...to get further instructions regarding how to mourn losing their mother.
APRIL 2022- Transart- The Open Window Series
ByteTime, Meeting Oceania, July 2021
SATURDAY 30 APRIL 2022
CONNECTING WITH THE LOCAL: BUILDING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MORE-THAN-HUMAN
A TALK BY TRACEY BENSON
"Since 2001, I have lived in the ACT region, on Ngunnawal country, where I am active as an artist, researcher and digital engagement specialist." TB
I found Australian artist Tracey Benson's work stunningly beautiful...visually, auditor-ally, and in the living, moving earth centered content. It’s meditative, contemplative, and profoundly spiritual. Her collaborations are as organic as the subject matter. Her work, all of it, digital images, videos, sound elements, performances within, in the most subtle and inconspicuous ways, is ritualistic. She honors life and creativity simply by creating and presenting what she sees on her walks. Her walks and the documentation of them are the work. It's such a simple concept and approach, and so profound at the same time. In a way, she is the Australian Joel Goldsworthy...only way better. Something about his work, for me, always strikes me as a bit contrived. Anyway, T. Benson's talk and presentation of her work inspires me to seriously consider re-directing, in a similar way, my own creative practice. Wow-wee.
APRIL 2022- Transart Intensive Session 16: Tracings
Michael Bowdidge, Meccano Duck-Rabbit, Mixed-media assemblage, 2012
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 10 hours between 30 & 01 May 2022
"WAYS INTO WITTGENSTEIN" WITH MICHAEL BOWDIDGE
Icebreaker/warm-up exercise, "LOOK AND TELL HOW IT REALLY IS"
Favorite color: orange
Favorite animal, plant or other living thing: trees
Favorite food: mushrooms (umami)
Now fill in the following "blanks" with your answers from above:
My practice is...orange (well, not really, right now it is very “fleshy” colored...all shades of flesh tones)
My research is like a…tree (yes, it is sort of tree-like in that it is rooted in the earth...paint/pigment-based, so literally it is earthy. And it is leafy in that right now my paintings have lots of organic greens, and my creative process in general, does reach up to the sky...my head is often "in the clouds" so to speak. There is also a bark-like element to my research praxis in that I typically do seek a metaphoric and literal top or final "layer".
My thesis will taste like…mushrooms (yes, I can say it is generally sautéed mushroom-y and umami. Savory, I think, is a pretty good fit to describe my current body of work, so it works.)
SLIDE LECTURE- A Brief History of Wittgenstein's Life (see ppt)
Read Wittgenstein On Rules and Private Language, and on “aspect blindness”
Read American philosopher Saul Kripke
Read Malcom Ashmore-The Reflexive Thesis (download on is on my desktop, courtesy Tina FM)
‘GRAMMAR TELLS US WHAT KIND OF OBJECT ANYTHING IS' exercise
1. Step away from your computer and spend 5 minutes looking at and reflecting upon the visible grammar (structure) of the room that you are in.
2. Find a way to disrupt this grammar so that it reveals something about it.
3.Then find a way to document this disruption so that you can share it with the group.
APRIL 2022- Studio Praxis- Works In Progress
Gina Dominique, studio shot of works in progress, working title ColorCoded, approximately 27 acrylic on canvas, and acrylic on linen paintings, sizes vary, 2021-
For months I have been working on more than two dozen small and medium sized canvases, and four larger un-stretched linen pieces. This month I've fortunately had more productive studio days. I've continued what I started in March, which was a second round of painting on my ChromaTheory under-paintings.
For it, I've been using lighter tones, among others, Golden's "Titan Pink", and lighter green shades, among others, Golden's Open "Titan Green". I am happy that the under-paintings are sitting behind or "underneath" this newest round of marks. Also, I am pleased and a little surprised that there continues to be a strong abstracted figurative aspect or feel to individual pieces...as well as to the overall body of work. Depending on how it resolves, I may call the portfolio something like ColorCoded.
Painting is an esoteric thing. It challenges me emotionally and intellectually. I find a lot about being a painter exciting. Side note: I typically document via pix as I construct a body of work, but I do not typically write about a series while I'm making it.
APRIL 2022- How To Raise a Ghost...or How a Ghost Raises Me
Gina Dominique, It’s A Bird, It’s A Plane, Wait… What?... It’s My Dad as a Superman Cloud, Digital Image 3/3, November 2019, cropped
On September 2nd, 2019, my father passed away. I cried hard the night and morning just before he “gave up the ghost” … and every day after for the many months that followed.
Then during early November while still in my grief-stricken state, I attended a month-long Santa Monica 18th Street Center Artist’s Residency. During my first few days there, on a return trip to my studio from an art supply store run, in the back of an Uber ride, I was awe struck by the sunset and what I saw as “fire clouds”.
While we sat in traffic, I noticed my dad in one of the clouds... as if he was flying over the LA freeway in Superman style. I was astounded and quickly took a few iPhone pics. And I thought, “Wow, he is such a powerhouse to have manifested so quickly, so recognizably, and so funnily.".
As he did countless times throughout my life, he really raised my spirits then. And that was the first of dozens or maybe a hundred times that he has shown up for me since...often in cloud form…sometimes as a heart.
Since he was a deeply loving person, seeing him this way makes me feel loved by him. In addition to be very loving, he could also be stubborn or hard-headed. So he made me laugh when he showed up last summer as a “heart-head” cloud... Lol
As recently as last week while I contemplated how I might approach this “How to Raise a Ghost” assignment, I was distracted by the stunning sky just before sunset. I went outside and from our front deck, as I often do, took a couple of pictures.
A few days later as I revisited the images, I noticed on the second one, in the topmost foregrounded cloud, my dad’s face in strict profile. Then I also noticed the images were dated April 1, 2022. I thought, "Ha-ha dad, no fooling!".
He was a very funny, jokey guy, so it is fitting… both on the count that in his profile cloud he looks almost cartooned, like a cameo of Fred Flintstone (the cartoon character that while growing up my sibs and I teased him that he looked and acted like), and on the count that he showed up in this funny way on April Fools’ Day.
All of this to say that even though I have ideas about how to raise a ghost, I for sure know this ghost who raised me, and who, astonishingly enough, still regularly raises my spirits and makes me laugh.
APRIL 2022- 1st Progress Review & Supervisory Meetings 10 & 11 Notes
Title Supervision meeting - 08 Apr 2022 - Gina Dominque Hersey
Date 08 Apr 2022
Project ChromaTheory: Color, Abstract Painting & Otherness
Researcher Gina Dominque Hersey
Academic year 2021 - 2022
Gina Dominque Hersey
Dr Robyn Ferrell
Discussion notes (researcher)
Friday 8 April & Wednesday 20 April 2022 LJMU Supervisory Meeting Notes
Attending on Friday 8 April: Lead Supervisor Mark Roughley, TT Supervisor Borinquen Gallo & LJMU PGR/TT practice-based PhD candidate Gina Dominique
Attending on Wednesday 20 April: TT Supervisor Robyn Ferrell and LJMU PGR/TT practice-based PhD candidate Gina Dominique
1. At the outset of the 08 April meeting, Mark noted that it would double as the month's supervisory meeting as well as my first progress review.
2. He also noted that my next milestone will be the first annual review, which will take place in September 2022.
3. We reviewed by first Progress Review and Research Project Training Record, which I submitted after our March meeting. All supervisors approved it, so it is now "complete". And in relationship to it, the following was discussed or noted...
4. Mark asked how I found both the LJMU trainings, and the monthly Transart Intensives.
And I stated:
a. The LJMU trainings are practically speaking helpful.
b. The Transart Intensives are aptly named, as they are intense...in every way...creatively, intellectually and emotionally.
aa. They are also intense to prepare for (the readings are demanding, and I/we each document thoughts, questions or discussion points in a required reading diary. Mine is posted on this website...ginadominique.com/page/4-Reading-Diary-…)
bb. They are demanding to attend, in that they are about 6 or so hours each during the last Saturday and Sunday of each month.
cc. They are typically content rich, so intense to "process" or "digest".
dd. All of this, of course, makes them valuable.
ee. I noted too that the TT facilitators are next-level smart, very well-prepared, and engaging.
5. Mark acknowledged the high number of LJMU trainings I have attended, as well as the number of TT Creative Research Journal entries I make. He said he appreciates how much effort I put into both attending, as well as documenting/writing notes on my:
a. Creative research/studio practice work
b. LJMU trainings, and the outside sessions I attend
c. TT Intensive summaries of sessions I have attended
d. LJMU/TT supervisory meeting notes I take and post. He finds them useful, in that they allow him to follow what I am doing.
6. He also expressed appreciation for my TT Reading Diary entries, which allow him to follow what I am reading and thinking re: the readings. (That leads us to brief but helpful discussions, which end up linking LJMU and TT aspects of the program.)
7. All supervisors expressed approval of my studio work, which I continue to be enthusiastic about and engaged in. Robyn in particular had insightful thoughts on a few philosopher-linguists and a psychodynamic writer I might read re: body parts, the mirror phase, and emotional life.
8. Re: my praxis and ChromaTheory thesis project, I stated that I viewed it like three strands or threads, which, for purposes of writing my thesis, I will braid together. The threads include:
a. Studio work...abstract painting project (i.e., "ChromaTheory" and possibly a "Color Coded" portfolio)
b. Art historical or literary review, in which I will situate or contextualize my own practice. (I.e., pre-feminist abstract painting...in the west beginning with Hilma af Klint, through contemporary "post-feminist" abstract painting/painters). Plus color theory, the history of color theory, and the de-colonization of it...i.e., color and intersectionality.
c. Data I glean from interviews I conduct of 3-7 of my contemporary female abstract painter peers.
9. I asked Mark if it might be possible during 2nd week of LJMU July residency(last week of the month) for me to work with an LJMU print technician to learn or produce some printed paintings (if there is a printer...digital or analog or hybrid) on canvas. For reference, I cited Laura Owens' "extruded" paint-like matter on her canvases.
10. Robyn and I discussed approaches I might take to writing my thesis/exegesis outline, and I reiterated to her that I imagine "braiding" together three separate concept strands or ropes. I see them now as:
a. The 100+ year old art historical aspects of abstract painting
b. The history of color theory and applications of it
c. The "otherness" aspects, i.e., socio-economic factors, gender/feminist perspectives, racial realities, and the linguistic contexts.
11. Robyn and I also talked about a timeline for writing next year:
a. During the summer 2022, I continue to expand my readings especially in relationship
b. During the fall 2022, I write my outline and each chapter abstract
c. During the winter & spring 2022, I write the initial rough draft
12. Between now and our next, June 15 meeting, Robyn and I agreed to email readings and comments back and forth.
My supervisors continue to be individually and collectively enthusiastic, supportive and very encouraging.
Supervisor discussion notes
Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
Towards the aim of conducting 7.c., see above listed notes, "Peer research interviews", Mark again reviewed my next steps, including what to do to obtain ethical approval:
1. Review LJMU Ethics site
2. Complete and submit the “Ethics application form & template" at “minimal risk” level.
3. Construct a single set of 2-3 interview questions to ask all peer painter interviewees. Note: Borinquen suggested I base the questions on my stated research questions...or to simply use those exact questions.
4. Create a list of potential peer painter interviewees, which we started to do during the meeting. (I.e., Joan Snyder, Carrie Moyer, Laura Owens, Suzan Frecon, Tomashi Jackson, Becca Albee, David Batchelor, Stephen Bleicher, Anne Sophie L'Orange (TT cohort abstract post-feminist painter peer), and Borinquen stated that I also interview myself.)
5. Once I obtain ethical approval, and possibly beginning this July (I stated that I may make this the focus of my 2nd week LJMU personal residency), that is at that time, I conduct three-five peer interviews.
6. Mark recommended that construct an interview outline, then for each interview, follow it, using same set of methods:
a. Set of questions
b. Time keeping method and allot same amount of time to asking each question
c. Recording device
d. Method of transcription
e. Method of analysis
7. Mark said he will contact LJMU print studio and ask if a printer as I describe is on site. He said, if so, at least one technician is on site throughout the summer, and he'll connect us.
I followed up after the 20 April meeting between Robyn and myself by emailing her the two PhD thesis readings from the April TT intensive's assigned readings...I told her that I especially liked Allison Geremia's outline and structured-unstructured approach, as well as my most recent, expanded or updated working bibliography.
She will email me the names of writers she's recommending I read.
MARCH 2022- Transart Intensive Session 15: Ars Moriendi
Mia Van Leeuwan, cropped screen shot of SAPIENTIA, 2014-2019, cropped
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 10 hours between 26 & 27 Mar 2022
PART I: Body as Archive- Sound Bath with Zeerak Ahmed
Zee presented historical information via slides, and then posed..."If sound is buried under layers of time how might we be able to use our own sounding bodies to access beyond the here and now?" Then, we took a sound bath in Zee's exquisite vocals. Initially, I wrote...then a day later refined...
I see that
connected to the
force field that
They are among the things
that connect us to the
astral plane, to our
higher self, to our
spiritual family, and to
My aural capacities
carry me like a time
space to the past
My sounding body comes from
light and passes through
the ozone into the
atmosphere and as a
spiraling vortex it
enters my body
There it echoes through
ba boom boom
back up and
I hear female
Indian rags in
the streets of
I hear the
voice of Jai Sri
chanting the vedas
I hear Shelia Chandra
singing her magic
I hear Zee
During a follow-up Q&A, Zee asked:
"What is the state of longing?"
"What forms does it assume?"
"What are its sounds?"
"Is it possible for words and melodies to transcend the barriers of language, time and space?"
PART II: Ars Moriendi ("The Art of Dying")
Public talk, "Death in the Age of Rationality: Playing with Death in Popular Amusements" with Joanna Ebenstein
"Anatomical Venus", "Death in the Age of Rationality", "Veloputous Panic", Mel Gordon's Cabaret Du Neant", and the connection to Andre Breton and the surrealists...
"Himmel and Holt" (Heaven and Hell, a German cabaret 1955-1957, and discussions many other European and American death-themed cabaret's were the topic.
Most interesting ideas presented...
-Death is a tragic idea in patriarchal cultures
-Death is natural and cyclical in matriarchal cultures
-Divinity is transcendent in patriarchal cultures
-Divinity is imminent in matriarchal cultures
-Consciousness does not end...(nor does it begin), connects to Jung's idea of the collective unconscious.
-Jungian quote "Look at things with a deep respect for the facts."
PART III: Ars Moriendi ("The Art of Dying")
"How to Raise a Ghost: Memento Mori as Contemporary Praxis" with Mia Van Leeuwen*
"Remember you must die"
"How to Raise a Ghost: A Sketchbook For the Living", the workshop's assignment, was modeled after Handbook for the Recently Deceased and The Art of Dying Well...examples given and discussed included:
-write step-by-step instructions, i.e., on how to die well, i.e., "Take a breath, imagine that this is the first one of your life. Then take a breath and imagine that it is the last one you will ever take."
i.e., "Build an alter for your things"
-write prompts, i.e., "write your own obituary"
-write event scores, i.e., "write a short story about an experience you have had with death"
*Note that the "sketches" can be poetic, humorous, ambiguous, clear, vague...whatever you like.
Next, follow your instructions or script or..., and produce a piece.
OR, do the reverse, "raise a ghost" and then write down how you did it.
To next TT Intensive session at end of April, bring both written prompt, or instruction, or script, or score, and the piece you have produced. To be continued then...
MARCH 2022- Studio Praxis- Works In Progress
Gina Dominique, studio shot of works in progress, working title ColorCoded, approximately 27 acrylic on canvas, and acrylic on linen paintings, sizes vary, 2021-
During the fall of 2021 while reading and researching for a color theory class I was teaching and for Transart Intensives I attended, I was inspired with the concept for my current series "Color Coded." My palette references “scientifically generated” skin-tone charts, “The Fitzpatrick Skin Type Scale”, used since the 1970s to determine SPF levels required to prevent sunburn, by its predecessor the “Von Luschan scale”, developed as a method for classifying ethnic populations via skin color and "racial classifications", and also by a myriad of "beauty" products promotional color charts.
My own skin tone lines up with the middle shade of all of the aforementioned charts, very closely matching the “olive” labeled one. Hence, variations of "olive" tones dominate my "Color Coded" under-paintings. In regards to having olive-toned skin, throughout my life I have been socially and psychologically conditioned to understand myself via my inherited Mediterranean ethnicities, as white, or at least as assimilated white...simultaneously I am subconsciously aware that I am non-anglo, non-brown, non-black person. Consequently I occupy a kind of in-between racial space, on the edge of racial constructs, in a sort of racial schism.
This coupled with my inhabiting a cis-female, feminine body within a society that engages in the glorification of anglo or pale, light skin-toned male or masculine bodies, powerfully impacts my lived experiences. In terms of sexism, like all females/feminines, I encounter it as a matter of course. And because most of my awareness, that is my feelings and thoughts about my ethnicity, race, gender and sexuality is internal, subtle and abstract, my creative expressions regarding my identity markers, that is my studio work, is also abstract.
MARCH 2022- Research Training- "Terry Smith: Iconomic Wars" Lecture
Gina Dominique, Terry Smith's "The Visual Arts Exhibitionary Complex- Clusters of Exhibition Value" diagram dated 12. 2021 and split screen pic of Terry Smith, zoom screen shot, cropped, 2022
Via zoom on March 9, 2022, I attended acclaimed contemporary art historian Terry Smith's ninety-minute "Iconomic Wars" talk hosted by MA Curatorial Practice at the School of Visual Arts, NYC. It was based on his new book Iconomy: Towards a Political Economy of Images. I concluded that iconomics is the intertwined relationship between a society, an iconographer (image maker), and during a most "relevant" moment said image maker's critical use of a culturally poignant iconographic tool, i.e., stick and pigment, chisel and stone, mirror, lens, camera, iPhone, etc.
OCTOBER 2021- JUNE 2022 LJMU Arts, Professional & Social Studies New PGR Trainings
Liverpool John Moores University, Arts, Professional & Social Studies PGR logo, cropped
Not otherwise documented in this creative research journal/blog, the following list includes LJMU Postgraduate Researcher Trainings I've attended & completed since October 2021
30 Mar 2022
Programme approval, completion
25 Mar 2022
Viewed on Canvas previously recorded "eDoc for PGRs" and "eDoc: how to record supervisory logs on eDoc" training videos. (1 hr)
19 Mar 2022
First progress review, submission
12 JAN 2022
Get Started with the British Library (3 hours)
15 DEC 2021
LJMU Postgraduate Dissertations: writing your aims and proposals (1.5 hours)
14 Dec 2021
Faculty of Arts, Professional and Social Studies INDUCTION FOR NEW PGRs (3 hours)
18 NOV 2021
LJMU Academic Writing for your PhD- Certificate (1.5 hours)
16 NOV 2021
Training Plan-workflow (5 hours)
15 NOV 2021
LJMU Research Ethics and Governance Canvas Course- Certificate (3.5 hours)
05 NOV 2021
LJMU Doctoral Academy Welcome- 1:1 with Jo McKeon (1.5 hours)
05 NOV 2021
LJMU Equality Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) (1 hours)
28 OCT 2021
Studying for Success (1 hours)
MARCH 2022- Supervisory Meeting 9 Notes
Jill Bennett, Empathic Vision: Affect, Trauma, and Contemporary Art cover (cropped)
Discussion notes (researcher)
Friday 4 March 2022 Supervisory Meeting
Lead Supervisor Mark Roughley & LJMU PGR/TT practice-based PhD candidate Gina Dominique
1. Mark and I discussed my February Creative Research Journal and Reading Diary posts. He recommended:
a_ Eduard Pernkopf- "Atlas of Anatomy", which I read up on here:
b_ Jill Bennett- "Empathic Vision Effect Trauma"
Following the meeting, using this link I ordered it here:
c_ Allen Sekula- “The Body and the Archive”, which I downloaded the PDF from here:
2. To prepare all supervisors for April meeting, since Borinquen was not able to make today's March 4th meeting, I agreed to email both Robyn and Borinquen to meet with me for the already scheduled March 16 meeting.
3. Mark outlined my upcoming Mid-term Progress Review, which will be due in April. He directed me to the LJMU eDoc “Guides" link found at the bottom left-hand eDoc list/column. He clicked on it, opened the “Progress report” form, and pointed out the “500 word box”. He directed me to use bullet points to discuss/highlight the following:
a_ My studio work and literary review reading progress
b_ First semester Transart intensives and LJMU trainings highlights
c_ Next steps: continuation of the practice, interviews with practitioners at “minimal risk”…
d_ Possible conclusion
And finally he stated that I will submit the eDoc form without prior discussion or back-and-forth via Google Docs with Supervisors...prior to next April 8, 2022 Supervisory meeting.
4. For my Progress Review report, Mark requested that the Friday, April 8, 8:00 PM GMT supervisory meeting be scheduled with all 3 of my supervisors, vs the previously scheduled two separate April meetings.
5. Forward looking, and following April’s “Progress Review” submission plus Supervisory meeting to discuss it, Mark advised that I will review the LJMU Ethics site to specifically complete the “Ethics application form & templates". Based on the online a questionnaire directions, beginning June, I will conduct two “interventions” of either "minimal" and/or "low risk". If both both are “minimal”, use one single form. If not, I will complete both two separate forms to:
a_ Write between 20-30 minute semi-structured interviews asking 2-3 questions (qualitative)
b_ Write social media, i.e., Instagram based, survey questions, anticipating (quantitive) responses.
c_ Complete the “Minimal Risk” questionnaire
d_ Delete all of the non-applicable questions (do not write “N/A)
FOLLOWING THE MEETING:
1. Along with ordering recommended books, I emailed Robyn and Borinquen re: both of them meeting with me for the scheduled March 16 meeting, and the one April 8 meeting vs. two different April supervisory meetings. I await their confirmation/responses.
2. Following April’s “Progress Review” eDoc submission and Supervisory meeting, I will complete the LJMU Ethics form/s as outlined above.
FEBRUARY 2022- Transart Intensive Session 14: Curating As A Political Action
Ariella Azoulay, Untaken Photographs from her The Natural History of Rape exhibition and text, 2018
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 10 hours between 26 & 27 Feb 2022
PART I- 26 Feb 2022 from 15:00 - 18:00 UTC
Curatorial Practices as Forms of Knowledge Production: A Workshop with Luisa Santos
Curating comes from Latin for “caring”, it is an organization of curiosities-biology (science labs)
I think immediately of:
Da Vinci’s anatomical and botanical drawings (predates formal “academic” or scientific curatorial practices…he essentially is the first formal western curator, no?)
Luisa Santos introduced:
-German artist Joseph Beuys’ work…digging a hole/planting tree
-Kosovo artist Petrit Halilaj's “The Silent University”
-The 4 C’s: From Conflict to Conviviality through Creativity and Culture
-Some of the “micro-narratives”...?
The Politics of Time and Space-The Power of Speculations
A) high risk = potential high gain
B) artists’ attempt to make apparent the systemic failure and loss of…?
C) mutability and (ex)change- new cultural production institutional strategy
D) Thinking ahead- a proposal- ask:
What types of knowledges are produced?
How is knowledge production also a political act?
PART II- 26 Feb 2022 from 18:30 - 20:00 UTC and 27 Feb 2022 from 15:00-16:30 UTC Curatorial (mono-, multi-, perma)cultures (of display): A Workshop with Fabíola Maurício
-Maricio encouraged the development of a shared vocabulary and critical discourse
-We viewed a TED Talk of Tania Bruguera's on artivism (art + activism = artivism); noted her newspaper as an artwork; political timing specific (art); Social affect transformed into social activism or social condition; and she discussed/promoted Art Conducte (Behavior/conduct art)
(I consider the process of ASSIMILATION...
migrant-->immigrant-->assimilated citizen of culture that one, or one's ancestors migrated to)
Maricio presented this linguistic equation:
Creative knowledge + practical knowledge = political knowledge
SUNDAY'S WORKSHOP GROUP EXERCISE:
-Maricio challenged small groups to Imagine that you have 6 months to prepare (envision) and implement a project on a political 'call out' of the current Putin's aggression on Ukrainians (and on western "democracy"). And to define the projects:
--OPEN PATHWAYS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT
I was in GROUP 2 along with Erin and Carrie. During our discussion, we entertained Erin's idea (to create a project involving) "skunking", (i.e., a word's meaning being the reverse of what it was originally or historically), and:
-curating an art exhibition around this idea
-conducting interviews or soliciting individual narratives of those who are experiencing first hand this phase of the war
-conducting and possibly filming a group discussion on the same
-the idea of not producing an art film, but considering the product being the intervention (discussions, statements...)
-a memorial for future wars (I note as long as the word "war" is skunked or means the opposite of what it has historically meant)
Later after our group presentation, Ana Fabiola Maurevia suggested that we conduct "mediation labs" with a persons who have current war stories/experiences and the artist/creative/curator facilitator
PART III- 27 Feb 2022 from 17:00-20:30 UTC
Curating Dissent- A Curatorial Approach to Postmedia Documentary Practices: A Workshop with Carles Guerra
We viewed and listened to lectures on one or more works by artists:
1. Carles Guerra-documentary film maker (see notes on interview of Antonio Negri*)
2. Allan Sekula**- photographer/documentarian
3. Susan Meiselas ?
4. Ariella Aisha Azoulay***-anti-imperialist; imperialist critic; creative curator; conceptual artist
art & language = art journal --> 1972 documenta 5 index --> translated into exhibition space consecrated artists comments on their own work
1990s our societies became places for communication about the nature of art, which is the exception to all other forms of labor.
cognitive capital=knowledge exchange humans are the technology...we are the gods, we are the government, we are the people...
1. Carles Guerra's film interview of *Antonio Negri, an Italian philosopher and writer of the late 20th c. and early 21st c. who wrote on self-organization generating connectivity and how that produces different work products compared to administrated labor schemes. Negri co-authored with Michael Hardt, "Empire" - early or 1st book on globalism. During the interview, Negri discusses what he thinks of when reading the letters of the latin alphabet...we watch/listen to his discussion of "A" and "B":
A=Augustine (as in Ste. Augustine...), transcendence...= Spinoza (democracy), and Machiavelli (humanism)
B= Biopower (imperialism+ empire rule =
monopolization of the weapon, i.e., post-industrial war complex;
monopolization of language/communication = CNN (maybe Fox now...?)
monopolization of biology (gene editing?)
**Allan Sekula- 1999 Waiting for the Tear Gas: from the White Globe to the Black Globe- 89 analog photos of Seattle WA, USA demonstrations against the World Bank...became an anti-photojournalistic action. Changed the course of documentary photography...invented a new form.
Multitude documentary practices make things happen...they act as a catalyst (journalist becomes a participant/creator vs. an "objective" by-stander
photography stopped being a simple way to capture events and it became an event or a catalyst for an event.
(I think of the US teenager Darnella Frazier's phone video that documented George Floyd's brutal murder by convicted police officer Derek Chauvin, which went viral and sparked the global phase of the Black Lives Matter movement. And I think of the evolution of the use of copying devices, which is detailed in artist David Hockney and physicist George Falco's Hockney-Falco theory outlined in "Secret Knowledge". It documents artists' use of copying devices from the pre-modern era beginning with van Eyck, and including daVinci, Durer, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Ingres, Warhol, Hockney, etc...(white western males= imperialist power holders of the modern period that gave them access to the objects or tools of power; magnifying lenses, camera obscura, camera lucida, portable 18th C. cameras, 20th C. projectors, etc.... and how now, in the 21st C., by comparison, many more "social groups" have much easier access to powerful copying devices)
***Ariella Aisha Azoulay- Readings 2, 3, 4 & 5-
A) Errata exhibition, which functioned as a guide a "potential history". It consisted of 800 images from archives that she collected, corrected and curated. It effectively RE-COLLECTS the history of cataloging African artifacts in Europe.
B) The Natural History of Rape was an exhibition of documents from archives that were part of post WWII Germany, but none documented the more than 200,000 rapes of German women that occurred. She created "Untaken Photographs" (see image at start of this entry of printed black rectangles within books)...very conceptual, but not minimalist.
C) And in Unshowable Photographs are drawings Azoulay traced and rewrote the accompanying subtext to...since she was not permitted to use the photos with her own text.
D) Un-Documented: Unlearning Imperial Plunder a film by Azoulay, that looks at the acts of the West's stealing of "foreign" objects and keeping them precious in museums where they do not belong as acts of "imperial violence". She is an artist, critic, activist, curator, editorializer... https://vimeo.com/490778435
We stayed late and discussed Dorthea Lange's "Migrant Mother" as an icon of social justice during the time of the Great Depression, but which became an image of oppression to the "mother", Florence Owens Thompson, a Cherokee from OK, who later complained to the US Library of Congress to retitle it. They did not. I note that her personal identity is effectively forever erased...maybe sacrificed for the greater good...???
NOTE: Due to Russia's decade long war on Ukraine amplified a thousand fold this week, which made this particular weekend intensive a thousand fold more intense. :(
FEBRUARY 2022- Praxis Research- Faith Ringgold: American People- New Museum exhibition 02/17/22-06/05/22
Faith Ringgold, abstract painting with raffia tassels, cropped, acrylic on unstretched canvas
Wednesday 23 February, 2022, I saw and enjoyed the New Museum's FAITH RINGGOLD: AMERICAN PEOPLE exhibition. I am most familiar with her book Tar Beach, which I read to my now grown daughter dozens of times during her pre-school years. And I have also long known of her figurative painting and textile works, so I was enamored to see all of this in the context of her more expansive oeuvre. She is one of the most influential artists of her generation. Her work links a variety of practices, i.e., painting, quilting, story telling, book writing and education. www.newmuseum.org/exhibitions/view/fait…
FEBRUARY 2022- Supervisory Meetings 7 & 8 Notes
Gina Dominique, "Pink World 3", cropped, acrylic on canvas, 15" diameter, 2019
On 11 Feb 2022, Supervisory Lead Mark Roughley, TT supervisor Borenquin Gallo and I met for just over an hour.
And on 16 Feb 2022, Robyn Ferrell and I met for more than one hour. During each meeting the following was discussed:
_Mark stated that due to illnesses, the School faculty meeting re: Project Application Approvals will not meet during February, so I should not expect to hear about mine until next month.
_I updated all supervisors on these matters:
_I was invited as a guest artist on Philadelphia, PA, USA based author and gallerist Bridgette Mayer's live podcast for her Monday, April 18th show.
_Related to that, in late Feb. my recent work will be photographed, and those images will be used for Mayer's social media Podcast promotional materials.
_One of my paintings, "Pink World 3", will be included in the upcoming Contemporary Color: Theory & Use, 3rd Ed, by Stephen Bleicher, publish/release date of 2023. My work will be part of Chapter 6, on Color and Intersectionality.
_I had a January 29, 2022 meeting with Stevenson University, Maryland based Professor and Gallery Director, Lori Rubeling. During that meeting she and I discussed her intent to book a 2024 solo show of my work. Director of 4 galleries at Stevenson University MD Green Spring Campus, and an occasional visiting curator at University of Maryland Baltimore County art gallery, as this year unfolds, Lori Rubeling will book which specific gallery the exhibit will be mounted in, and the specific dates.
_During our meeting, we also discussed ChromaTheory (my thesis), indeterminacy, liminality, Avetal Renal (a German writer), and Bergson (A French writer on "cone of perception"). Rubeling stated that she will write an essay to accompany the exhibition.
_I asked if a 2024 calendar year exhibition, once confirmed or booked, might be considered my PhD thesis exhibition?
_Professor Roughley reviewed my projected Project due Dates on eDoc, pointing out that the window for my Thesis submission is 15 Jul 2024 - 15 Jun 2025, meaning that a show mounted during any season of 2024 will coincide with due dates.
_We all agreed that if my show is mounted during the Spring of 2024, I will submit the written thesis following it, during the late summer of 2024. And if the exhibition is mounted during the Fall of 2024, I will submit my 40,000 word written thesis during the first quarter of 2025.
_Michael Bowdidge stated I would include an essay on my work within my citations list.
_Borinquen stated that Lori Rubeling's essay would become a part of my Thesis appendices.
_Robyn stated that my podcast interview, the inclusion of my painting in "Contemporary Color: Theory & Use 3rd Ed, a 2024 thesis exhibition, and Rubeling's upcoming accompanying essay will all become part of my documented PhD research activities.
_Mark asked me to update my website, www.ginadominique.com, to separate out the TT Reading Diary from the TT Process Blog.
_Mark, Borinquen and I agreed to change the March supervisory meeting to @10AM EST/15:00 GMT, Friday, 4 March, 2022.
_Robyn and I agreed to meet on the 3rd Wednesday USA/Thursday Aus of each month, and booked our meetings accordingly through June 2022.
_Robyn stated that she will email specific November 2022 dates during which time she will visit New York City. And we agreed, if possible, to meet in person that month, and to also invite Borinquen.
_I requested that Robyn help direct my thesis writing. She agreed and to get it going, she said within the upcoming week, she will email me a prompt question re: my "Pink World 3" painting.
_All advisors are very encouraging, supportive and helping me shape my research.
_After the meeting, I did separate out my Reading Diaries from my "Process Blog", renamed at TT's request, "Creative Research Journal". The url is unchanged... https://ginadominique.com/news.html
_Due to size of my OPP websites "flex pages" limitations, I created two new "Reading Diary" tabs, separate and apart from the "Creative Research Journal"
1) An active "Reading Diary 2022"- https://ginadominique.com/page/4-Reading-Diary-2022.html
2) An archived Diary titled "Reading Diary 2021"- https://ginadominique.com/page/5-Reading-Diary-2021.html
_I registered for the February 26 & 27 2022 Transart intensive SESSION 14: CURATING AS POLITICAL ACTION. I completed the required readings, and posted my Feb. 2022 Reading Diary on listed above link.
_I have yet to complete my Creative Research Journal February activities and posting. It is due by Feb. 25. (A very recent family death takes me to PA for funeral service for the next few days.)
JANUARY 2022- Transart Intensive Session 13: Sounding Bodies
Image of the cover of the Voyager Golden Record, cropped
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 10 hours between 29 & 30 Jan 2022
Part I- A Movement Session With Kate Hilliard
A. Check in with the five senses
Smell of burned wood
memory of the smell of Play-doh
Note to self...make Play-doh sculptures
Taste of plastic
B. Stability Practice
(It wakes up the body and challenges it...like a headstand?)
List of thoughts I had during the 7.5 min. slow moving meditation
C. Creative Flow (no editing or censoring)
1. Walk/travel around the room you are in.
2. Draw the path traveled, not the floor plan, draw the path.
3. Re-walk the room.
4. Draw the shape of the topography.
5. Go to a place in the room where you have not been and become part of the room's architecture.
6. Draw the room from this architectural perspective.
(I sat on one of the window sills and became the window...looking into the room.)
1. Impose a period of time.
2. Use repetition and tempo.
3. Fracture a piece of my own thinking and take it out of context.
4. Search for something I've said lately and treasure it.
5. Make a commitment to regularly (daily or weekly) to spend 5 minutes writing a deconstruction of that that thought or element of speech.
Part II- Critical Immaterial Art: A Workshop with Zeerak Ahmed
The Voyager Golden Record Defined
The Voyager 1 probe is the farthest human-made object from Earth.
Both V1 and V2 have reached interstellar space, the region between stars where galactic plasma is present. Like their predecessors Pioneer 10 & 11 that had a simple plaque both V1 and V2 were launched by NASA with a message aboard— a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate to extraterrestrials a story of the world of humans on Earth.
The contents of the record were curated for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University. The selection of content for the record took almost a year. Sagan and his associates assembled 115 images and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, thunder and animals including the songs of birds and whales.
To this they added audio content to represent humanity spoken greetings in 55 ancient and modern languages including a spoken greeting in English by U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/… and a greeting by Sagan's six-year-old son Nick other human sounds like footsteps and laughter (Sagan's) the inspirational message Per aspera ad astra in Morse code and musical selections from different cultures and eras
The record also includes a printed message from U.S. president Jimmy Carter, %This is a present from a small, distant world, a token of our sounds, our science, our images, our music, our thoughts and our feelings. We are attempting to survive our time so we may live into yours.
The collection of images includes many photographs and diagrams both in black and white and color. The first images are of scientific interest showing mathematical and physical quantities the Solar System and its planets, DNA, and human anatomy and reproduction. Care was taken to include not only pictures of
humanity but also some of animals, insects, plants and landscapes
Images of humanity depict a broad range of cultures. These images show food architecture and humans in portraits and humans going about their day-to-day lives. Many pictures are annotated with one or more indications of scales of time size mass. Some images contain indications of chemical composition. All measures used on the pictures are defined in the first few images using physical references that are likely to be consistent anywhere in the universe.
The musical selection is varied featuring works by composers J.S. Bach interpreted by Glenn Gould, Mozart, Beethoven played by the Budapest String Quartet, Stravinsky, Guan Pinghu, Blind Willie Johnson, Chuck Berry, Kesarbai Kerkar, Valya Balkanska and electronic composer Laurie Spiegel, Mugham Azerbaijani folk music by oboe player Kamil Jalilov.
The inclusion of Berry's "Johnny B. Goode" was controversial with some claiming that rock music was "adolescent" to which Sagan replied "There are a lot of adolescents on the planet." The selection of music for the record was completed by a team composed of Carl Sagan as project director Linda Salzman Sagan, Frank Drake, Alan Lomax, Ann Druyan as creative director artist Jon Lomberg ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, Timothy Ferris as producer and Jimmy Iovine as sound engineer.
It also included sounds of humpbacked whales from the 1970 album by Roger Payne, Songs of the Humpback Whale... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyager_Golden_Re…
Part III- with Zeerak Ahmed
Day 2 workshop's 20th Century Conceptual Sound Works and related in-session exercises inspired me to write these pieces:
My Take on Lamont Young's Composition 1960 #7
Anna de Keersnaber & Steve Reich's 1966 performance Come Out, Diagrammed
2 (female) bodies- female
both wearing the same haircuts
both dressed in the same costumes/clothes
both seated on the same type of stool
womb that is "glazed", i.e. cold
tape loop of male human voice detached
(from the female performers)
dancers movements are minimal
grid of the glazed building/stage is minimal
music is minimal
Documented "Unglazed" Sound and Movement
Steve Reich and Anne Teresa de Keersmaeker's
Violin Fase - Violin Phase
I Am Sitting In a Room Listening to a Recording of Alvin Lucier Smoothing Out His Stutter
----> Lucier's discernible male voice reading...
I am sitting in a room different from the one you are in now
I am recording the sound of my speaking voice and I am going to play it back into the room again and again until the resonant frequencies of the room reinforce themselves
so that any semblance of my speech
with perhaps the exception of a rr-rh-rhythym
what you will hear then
are the natural resonant frequencies of the room
articulated by speech
I regard this activity nnnot so much as a demonstration of a physical fact
but more as a way to ss-ss-smooooth out
any irregularities my speee-eech might have
----> is looped and played over and over and over and over...
----> As the sound loop repeats it gets more and more and more echo-y
----> Until slowly and eventually his voice morphs into a non-gendered drone
Boomerang...based on Nancy Holt's voice recorded by Richard Serra
I am by
I feel reality
my own voice
my own voice
I am surrounded
My Golden Record
X-ray of a human head and torso
human genitalia diagram
(my husband interjecting...)
oval maps of the earth
leaves with dew
Jane Goodall with chimps
man dismounting an elephant
men running a race
Stravinsky's Rite of Spring
children with hand on a globe
cotton being harvested
jet taking off
Two-minute Deep Listening
a car driving by
...writing with this
pen on this paper
hearing my own
voice reading what
I am thinking
All of the above
Become aware of using more auditory language, words and vocabulary
My senses are gendered
I mean for example that my
hearing or auditory
functions are masculine
It is because my dad
had a big
via my mother
who is a visual
told me that
when I was
one look at
She was the
to "see" me...in
every sense of
JANUARY 2022- Research Training- LJMU Doctoral Academy "Questionnaire Survey Design" Workshop
"Explore Analysis Tools", cropped image
On 24 Jan 2022 I attend a 75 min. Docotoral Academy Questionnaire/Survey Design workshop with Tom Goodall. During it, the topics he covered included:
What a survey is
~A type of research design
~A traditional approach to data collection
Advantages of surveys:
~wide geographical coverage/reach
Limitations of surveys:
~can be too subjective
~tend to be brief
~respondents cannot answer "why"
Types of surveys:
~Internet surveys (survey monkey, google forms, MS forms, etc., all of which give access to SPSS that is free via LJMU by requesting a survey account from IT services...Nvivo or SPSS
Types of Questions
1) Open style- ask something like "What were your reasons for choosing ____?" (more info but more time consuming, i.e., allow interviewer/researcher to ask longer questions that allow for respondent to give full explanations, but more time consuming for researcher to process/analyze)
2) Closed style- ask "when", "If", "yes/no" or multiple choice/ranking type questions that are less info to gather, but quicker to take and assess, i.e., allow researcher to allow respondent to quickly answer, which provide researcher with very limited data that is easier and quicker to process/analyze...loss of spontaneity
TIPS ON GOOD SURVEY DESIGN
General Do's and Dont's List
~Do use a simple, to-the-point survey title
~Do ask 1 (vs. multiple) question per question
~Do ask questions within respondents knowledge base
~Do use understandable language
~Do ask an answerable/limited number of questions so as to stay aware of the time the survey will take to complete.
~Don't use "absolutes", i.e., "Do you always...?"
~Don't ask "leading" questions
~Don's ask "loaded" questions
~Don't ask overly personal questions
~Don't ask irrelevant questions
- Introduction Design
~Be brief with a greeting and explanation of the topic covered in the survey
~Statement of anonymity
~How the respondent was selected
- Question Design
~How to answer
~Consider order of questions
~Consider relevance of questions-stay on topic
~Check grammar & spelling
~pre-test on a small sample group
After sample completes it, ask if
a) the questionnaire is understandable
b) the questions are appropriate
c) the order makes sense
d) do I understand the responses...is it the information I am seeking?
~Remember my overall objective
~Use an appropriate data collection method
~Question types-qualitative, quantitative or mixed
~Keep it simple
~Be mindful of the layout
~Pre-test a small sample group
~Limit the # of questions
(Take session on BoS and the analysis of the data)
JANUARY 2022- Studio Praxis & LJMU PhD Program Approval Application Submitted
Gina Dominique, Studio pic of works in progress, cropped, Dec 2021
Two main topics of discussion dominated my Research Supervisory Committee (RSC) meetings during October, November, December 2021, and January 2022, which I had with supervisory lead, LJMU professor Mark Roughley, and RSC Transart faculty members Robyn Ferrell and Borinquen Gallo: 1) My studio practice, and 2) the construction of my research project approval application, submitted 18 January 2022...(happy birthday to me).
This practice based research project will develop into a new body of abstract paintings and, in the tradition of artists’ writings, a 40,000 word publication. I am a 21st Century, 2nd & 3rd generation Italian American female abstract painter, who acknowledges that living within a western white, male-dominated culture powerfully impacts my life experiences and perceptions. Given these realities, I will base both practice-based research, and writings on my gender/sexual, cultural/ethnic identities, and experiences and perceptions.
RESEARCH PROJECT KEY QUESTIONS
~How can I create a new technique/style of 21st Century abstraction that examines, expresses and constructively comments on gender/sexuality and ethnicity/race?
~How do the histories of philosophy of color, phenomenology of color, and color theory affect women abstract painters, including me, and how can I reframe them to be more inclusive?
~How can I, as a 21st Century postfeminist, abstract painter, through my praxis, constructively contribute to the history of abstract painting so that it becomes more inclusive?
RESEARCH PROJECT AIMS
~Formulating auto-ethnographic, gender-aware abstract paintings and writings.
~Researching the histories of the philosophy of color, phenomenology of color, color theory, gender studies, and ethnic/race studies to determine how they have historically impacted female abstract painters.
~Identifying the roles that an abstract artist’s skin color, ethnicity and gender play within historical abstract painting developments.
RESEARCH PROJECT OUTLINE
~Create new abstract paintings relevant to my identity and culture, and in the tradition of Artists’ Writings, create a new, gender and ethnically inclusive or intersectional philosophy/theory of color.
~Compare and contrast how the histories of the philosophy of color, color phenomenology, and color theory impact abstract painters.
~Examine techniques used by contemporary abstract women painters via readings, exhibition viewings, conducting informal interviews, and critiquing methods used by historically relevant 20th and 21st century abstract painters and artist writers. (See Appendix A)
RESEARCH PROJECT EXPLANATION
The literature review of my praxis is based on how visual artists/writers use color to discuss cultural, ethnic/racial, gender/sex and other identity markers. For example, in an Aperture interview by Annika Klein of artist Becca Albee titled “Full Color Feminism”, Albee says of her photographs and installation "Radical Feminist Therapy: Working in the Context of Violence" series that she researched different lifestyle-oriented and types of color-related therapies, and considers gender constructs surrounding the marketing of color to women, and its relationship to capitalism.
And Tomashi Jackson’s abstract mixed media works, in which she deals with connections between the linguistics of color theory and racialized America's focus on color, is the subject of Risa Puleo’s Hyperallergic article “The Linguistic Overlap of Color Theory and Racism”, dated December 14, 2016. In her writing Puleo addresses how Jackson found her studies of Josef Albers’ color language being used to describe color perception, which mirrored the language of racialized segregation. That inspired the artist to use color perception as an aesthetic strategy for investigating the American history of mid-to-late twentieth century school desegregation, and recent re-segregation of public spaces.
Like Albee’s and Jackson’s work, mine also challenges existing gender and color narratives by examining, from a 21st C. post-feminist perspective, the influence color theory has on artists, including myself. My focus is on how the philosophy of color, color theory and color phenomenology impacts my own creative expressions. By bringing my female/feminine voice, and olive-complected, non-Anglo body to the exclusively male/masculine constructed color theory narrative, my praxis also contributes. (See Appendix B).
Researching color theories led me to the color palette of my new “ChromaTheory- On Color, Painting and Otherness” series. I was inspired by “scientifically generated” skin-tone charts, two in particular, i.e., “The Fitzpatrick Skin Type Scale”, used since the 1970s to determine SPF level required to prevent sunburn, and its contrasting predecessor “Von Luschan scale”, developed as a method for classifying skin color and racial classification by populations. See Appendix C.
My skin tone lines up with the middle shade of each chart, and matches the“olive” labeled tone, meaning I inhabit a non-anglo, non-brown, non-black, or a “none-of-the-above” body, and live in a western society that engages in the glorification of the anglo male/masculine body, while simultaneously institutionalizing sexism and racism. In terms of the sexism, I experience it daily. In terms of racism, I occupy an in-between or liminal space.
From this vantage point, between October 2021-July 2024, and according to the following schedules, I propose to continue the research, creation and exhibition of new paintings, and to write and publish related texts.
PROPOSED PLAN OF WORK
SCHEDULE 1- Research Survey
July 2022-June 2023
~Creation of survey questions regarding contemporary abstract women painters’ inspirations for color palettes and painting techniques used
~Seek LJMU ethical approval to conduct semi-structured survey of contemporary women abstract painters
~Distribution via social media, i.e., LinkedIn, Instagram
Gathering and sorting of survey responses
~Assessment, reflections and potential conclusions of survey results drawn
~Analysis of survey results written
SCHEDULE 2- Studio and Exhibition
November 2021- July 2024
~Weekly studio sessions creating personal expressions, i.e., Develop new body of abstract works on linen, canvas, and paper, inspired by “science based” skin pigmentation charts. (See Appendix D- Work samples)
~Exhibition of praxis work-
--Participation in one or more group exhibitions during 2022, 2023, 2024
--Mounting of solo praxis exhibition during 2024
SCHEDULE 3- Reading/Writing and Publication
September 2021- July 2024
~On-going readings and notes from literature review, (See “Indicative Bibliography” attachment)
~Monthly journal entries of auto-biographically based artists’ writing style…i.e., see website “process blog” link and posts, creative writing, emails, essays, poems, prose, etc.
~A 2024 publication of a 40,000 word collection of artist’s writings
Investigations and evaluations will be conducted through an auto-ethnographic studio-based practice and a variety of qualitative analytical art methodological lenses:
Formalism- with regards to visual elements, especially color
Iconography/Iconology- with respect to underlying meaning
Feminism- with consideration of gender/s
Marxism- with regards to socio economics (class)
Biographical/Autobiographical- in relationship to identity/life story, i.e., ethnicity/race
Linguistics- within structuralist and/or deconstruction methods
Psychoanalysis- specific Freudian methods, and Jungian color psychology
ANTICIPATED RESEARCH OUTCOMES
Based on research and documentation, anticipated conclusions to be drawn will include:
~Creation of a series of auto-ethnographically based abstract paintings/artworks using newly formulated inclusive abstract techniques and style
~Exhibition of a 2024 one-person show of selected new works
Publication of a 40,000 word collection of Artist Writings based on:
--Reframing of the history of abstract painting as a feminocentric one
--Origination of an inclusive, intersectional 21st century color theory
JANUARY 2022- Research Training- Creative Research Methods Workshop with Helen Kara
Creative Research Methods: A Practical Guide by Helen Kara, cover image, cropped
Possible PhD presentation approaches
~Create mind map and use it like floor plan, and from it, construct a 3-d model
~Write a paragraph about the plan
~Write a found text poem from project statement… sequential or non-sequential (I used this approach to write the following two poem outlines...)
Fider and Komarova, Finlay, Ford Shallbetter
Gage, Gillman, Goethe, Gottschalk, Gregg
Hamilton, Hornung, Hornung, Hornung, Hornung
Itten, Itten, Itten
Newton, Noyes Vanderpoel
Pollock, Pollock, ‘Pro’Sobopha, Puleo
Rea, Rogers Tost
Sidaway, Stewart, Syme
Willard, Wurmfeld, Wurmfeld
Tell a story…or a bit of one
Sousanis N (2015) Doctoral thesis Unflattening, p.95, Harvard University Press.
Frame experiences to give them meaning-take the reader with you…bring the reader with me.
Consider making a graphic novel
Micro: Laura Stark
Behind Closed Doors (2012), Chicago University Press
Goldstein & Wickett 2009
Education and Theatre professionals
595-page health & safety report (2 vol. report)
based on it, this 30-min performance, with careful staging called Zero Tolerance was born
Read about the justification for a creatively written PhD
Helen recommended I research American mathematician this PhD thesis, The Equidistribution of Lattice Shapes of Rings of
Integers of Cubic, Quartic, and Quintic Number Fields: an Artist's Rendering Based on the original story by Manjul Bhargava and Piper Harron
Piper Alexis Harron, 2016
List of formats to consider:
Multi-modal presenting, i.e., slides: Ppt, press, etc.
Digital storytelling, i.e., Willox, Harper and Edge on Youtube
Be sure to know your audience and to maintain their interest, engage reader's/viewer's emotions, i.e., Rigolet Storytelling & Digital Media Lab: Have We Waited Too Long? By Marilyn Baikie, see her Youtube video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=dsvYQ-Fyp78&…
Exercise: Think about seminars, conferences, viva, etc.
~Could performative methods help in presenting your research?
~How can you combine these with other methods for greater understanding?
~It’s all about the quality of the content and the effectiveness of the presentation (format),
~Visual, auditory, written, moving, physical, experiential…
I.e., music/painting video collaborations like Baird and I did for “Pink Universe”
~Think on it for 20 min, then share some options.
~Write thesis as an “elevator pitch”, verbalize in 2-minute meeting with a “layperson” stranger what my thesis topic is.
~Write thesis as a Pecha Kucha- a 20 slides in 7 minutes visual/verbal presentation.
~Make a Tedtalk style max 20 min video presentation and post to YouTube.
(I spent time for this exercise developing what might become my "elevator pitch" or 2-3 minute verbal presentation)
Helen Kara is on LinkedIn, but more often on Twitter (Ethically she opposes/protests Meta's Instagram and FB apps, but hasn't yet deleted her accounts)
DECEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 11/11- the Future of Color
Jasper Johns, Green Target, 1955, cropped
With newly developed water- mixable oil paint, for painters, turpentine is no longer required. Award-winning and Gold certified Green America business like Natural Earth Paint, uses natural earth and mineral pigments and organic ingredients to make completely safe, sustainable, beautiful art supplies for children and fine artists. Earth pigments are clay and minerals prevalent in native soils all over the world. naturalearthpaint.com/ And eco-friendly paints such as Colourcraft acrylics are safer than traditional acrylics www.colourcraftltd.com/eco-acrylic-paint
Green art is environmentally neutral and does not have a negative impact on the planet. Since the 1960’s German artist Nils-Udo has been one of the most prolific Environmental artists. This enormous Clemson Clay Nest was built in Clemson University’s botanical gardens. Built with the help of students and volunteers, using bamboo for the interior of the nest and pine for the exterior. It used 80-tons of locally sourced pine logs. The piece stood for two years before its logs were turned into mulch to fill in the hole.
The green business definition describes a company that does not make any negative impact on the environment, economy, or community. These types of businesses are forward-thinking when it comes to human rights, environmental concerns, and related issues. Green businesses use environmentally sustainable resources and uphold socially responsible policies. Many organizations offer certification for green business standards and sustainability measures. Some of the most common requirements of these certification programs include:
-Taking steps to prevent pollution and reduce waste
-Safely managing hazardous materials and chemicals
-Providing consumer and employee education programs about sustainability
-Conserving natural resources complying with environmental laws www.upcounsel.com/green-business-defini…
While BP and other big polluters have taken some steps towards sustainable energy production, their green logo suggests they are an eco-friendly corporation, which is not the case. They selected the floral motif and analogous color scheme of yellow, yellow-green, and green to portray themselves as an environmentally conscious energy. Is this a misleading marketing scheme? www.green-e.org/certified-resources
The future of “fast” food is sustainable may seem like an oxymoron, but a McDonald’s franchise in Bethesda, Maryland became the chain’s first location to receive Level One certification from the Green Restaurant Association. GRA certification differs from others in that it incorporates all aspects of a restaurant’s business. This is different from something like LEED certification, for example, which applies only to buildings and construction. GRA incorporates LEED requirements, but also focuses on operations and interiors. Unseen to the naked eye are the recycled materials that have been used in the "green" McDonalds furniture. table.skift.com/2017/12/18/mcdonalds-fi…
Green architecture is the philosophy of architecture that advocates sustainable energy sources, the conservation of energy, the reuse and safety of building materials, and the siting of a building with consideration of its impact on the environment. In the early 21st century the building of shelter (in all its forms) consumed more than half of the world’s resources—translating into 16 percent of the Earth’s freshwater resources, 30–40 percent of all energy supplies, and 50 percent by weight of all the raw materials withdrawn from Earth’s surface. Architecture was also responsible for 40–50 percent of waste deposits in landfills and 20–30 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. www.britannica.com/art/green-architectu…
LASER, an anacronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation", is generally a collimated beam of coherent (all the waves moving in lock-step) electromagnetic energy with a very pure 'color' or narrow bandwidth...in the visible range from about 400-700nm. There are lasers with wavelengths in the infrared, masers that emit coherent microwaves, and even x-ray lasers. As for visible lasers, there are several types that emit in a variety of colors.
Semiconductor or diode lasers are the type we are most familiar with. These include red laser pointers at about 650nm. Lasers near this color are also used in all computer and music CD players. Diode lasers are now available in discrete colors from the infrared to blue and into the near ultraviolet.
Many are familiar with the orange HeNe gas laser at 632.8nm. HeNe laser also come in a green variety at 543.5nm. Gas laser colors also span the entire visible range at discrete wavelengths.
Dye lasers use an organic die in liquid solution as their lasing medium. Dye lasers have a unique ability to be tuned over a broad range of colors. In fact, by the appropriate selection of dye, any possible color in the rainbow can be produced. This web page, exciton.com/laserwavechart.htm shows a comprehensive chart of wavelengths produced by various dyes.
-Scott Wilber, President, ComScire- Quantum World Corporation
The Internet is the great “democratizer” of art because it’s “free” for anyone with access to enjoy. You no longer have to go to a museum to see art; you can see if on any desktop, laptop, tablet or phone screen. Specifically for art designed for the internet, in his TNW news article Web design color theory: how to create the right emotions with color in web design…, Jerry Cao writes, "We can break down color theory into three parts with regards to web UI design:
a. Contrast — Every shade of color has a set opposite — an “arch-nemesis” whose contrast is far greater than any other color. You can use the color wheel below to find each specific color’s opposite. Simply locate the color on the opposite end of the circle.
b. Complementation — Colors aren’t always at odds with each other: complementary colors accent each other and bring out their best, the opposite of contrast. These are the colors opposite each other on the color wheel, for example, purple’s complement is green.
c. Vibrancy — Each color evokes specific moods: the brighter warm colors (red, orange, yellow) tend to energize a user and make them more alert, while darker cool shades (green, blue, purple) tend to be more relaxing and tranquil. CNN uses a red banner in their top navigation to heighten alertness, a color decision that suits the site’s breaking news content." thenextweb.com/news/how-to-create-the-r…
The COLORCUBE is a three-dimensional model by which one can understand and teach digital color theory. This elegant representation of color bridges the gap between additive and subtractive systems of color, and defines the method by which colors are stored, manipulated, and reproduced using computer technology. www.colorcube.com/articles/basics/basic…
JANUARY 2022- Thesis Research- Color Wheel of The Year- Reading with Sarah Potter
Sarah Potter, Color Wheel of the Year- for Gina, cropped
During the fall of 2021, I learned of Cosmopolitan writer Sarah Potter's color expertise and for my research, I booked a 2022 Color Wheel of the Year reading with her. Then after our morning January 4, 2022 session, she emailed me a digital picture of the color cards she pulled earlier, and a digital journal for me to write entries onto. Her introduction and the January journal prompt, followed by my entry looks like this:
Color Wheel of the Year for Gina – 2022
Each color holds a specific vibration, energy, and intention. Throughout time, color has been used for healing, entertainment, beautification, and adornment. When we understand how to invoke the magic of each hue of the rainbow, we can use this energy as an ally in our everyday lives to affect our moods, our inspirations, and our overall well-being. Through our reading, a selection of 12 colors was intuitively selected for you, and you may begin this year long cycle whenever you desire, but I do believe the start of the next calendar month is a fantastic time to begin! How do you invoke these colors? I am so glad you asked! ;) We spoke a bit about it in our time together, but my favorite ways are as follows:
- Personal adornment (clothing, makeup, hair, nails)
- Home decor (plants, bedding, fresh flowers, paint if you feel ambitious!)
- Candle Magic
- Food & Drinks
- Meditation & Color Breathing Visualizations
- Journal Prompts
When meditating on a color, close your eyes, take a few centering deep breaths, and imagine yourself enveloped in a cloud of your chosen cloud. Let this cloud fill you with the energy of this particular shade of energy. Imagine yourself breathing in the color and send it swirling through every point of your body. Feel the magic of that color within you. Slowly breathe out this color. Do this for several minutes every day or whenever you see fit. (Follow your intuition!)
Each month, notice how the energy of this color comes to you. Where does it appear in your surroundings? When does it catch your eye? Be aware of the color within your own space and routine as well as when you are out and about. How does each color make you feel at the beginning of the month? How does each color make you feel at the end of each month? Notice the development of your relationship with each color.
Month 1: Pink- January 2022
Pink is the sweetest color of the rainbow! The hue that brings us back to our center! The color of self-care and self-love, Pink reminds us to be gentle and kind to ourselves. Pink allows us to be content and accept ourselves fully just as we are right now. Pink shows compassion, gratitude, and understanding. We open our hearts and nurture ourselves with this hue.
Journal prompt: How am I currently demonstrating kindness towards myself? How can I show myself more kindness?
~During January 2022, I can demonstrate kindness towards myself by doing daily pranayama, meditation and some light exercises.
~I can show myself more kindness by wearing a pink clothing item once a week or more. I bought a pink t-shirt and wore it a few times.
~I can show self-love by celebrating me on my 18 January birthday.
~I can allow myself happiness.
~I can research the etimology, phenomenology and symbolism of pink.*...
Pink is the color of a namesake flower that is a pale tint of red. It was first used as a color name in the late 17th century. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, pink is the color most often associated with charm, politeness, sensitivity, tenderness, sweetness, childhood, femininity, and romance. A combination of pink and white is associated with chastity and innocence, whereas a combination of pink and black links to eroticism and seduction. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink
Pink symbolizes youth, good health, and playfulness. It's the flush of first love and stands for nurturing femininity. It's used as the symbolic color of the movement to support breast cancer research, and we think of pink as an innocent, cheerful color.
Meaning Of Pink: Explained
The color of frivolity lives between red and white. Pink takes all the passion and energy of red and tempers it with the purity of white, leaving us with the color of tenderness and affection.
Pink has been definitively linked to toning down aggression, and its use in holding cells for violent criminals has been quite effective. Some sports teams have even painted opposing teams locker rooms pink in an attempt to reduce aggression. Pink is such an effective mood regulator that too much of it can by physically draining. Dark pinks have effects similar to red–heightened emotions, while pale pinks are more soothing.
Symbolism And Meaning Of Pink
Pink symbolizes youth, good health, and playfulness. It’s the flush of first love and stands for nurturing femininity. It’s used as the symbolic color of the movement to support breast cancer research, and we think of pink as an innocent, cheerful color.
We associate pink with the innocence of childhood and unabashed play. If giggles had a color, it would be pink, and pink used in design reveals a willingness to embrace wonder and creativity. Pink can soften formal design, and its influence can lighten up dark, stodgy colors.
Pink can be associated with passivity, and an unwillingness to take matters seriously. We think of pink as the color of inexperience and associate it with weakness and inhibitions. Pink can also be associated with timidity or a tendency to be overly emotional.
Pink Color Morsels
The pink fairy armadillo lives in Argentina and is the smallest of all the armadillos. They weigh less than a pound and forage for ants, worms, and other insects. Pink fairy armadillos live underground and emerge to find food at night.
The little finger is often referred to as the "pinky," and the origin goes back to an obsolete meaning of "pink" to refer to something small.
Before the famous band we know as Pink Floyd went by that name, they were called The Pink Floyd Sound. The also went by earlier names The Tea Set and Abdabs. Roughly 1 in 12 people own a copy of Pink Floyd’s Dark Side of the Moon album from 1973.
Dubble Bubble bubblegum was created in 1969, and got its pink color because that was the only color dye its creator, Walter Donger, had on hand.The record for the largest bubble ever blown with bubblegum is held by Susan Montgomery Williams who blew a 26-inch bubble in 1996.
Pink Words, Phrases And Idioms
Examples of how the meaning of pink colors our language:
• Tickled pink: to be happy
• In the pink: in good health -- this phrase hasn't always had this meaning
• Pinking shears: scissors with serrated blades
• Pink elephant: term to describe hallucinations during intoxication
• Pinkie finger: the smallest finger on the human hand
• Pink slip: notice that employment is ending
• Pink collar: refers to a particular class of jobs once only filled by women
Pink As A Signature Color
A signature color is different than a favorite color although for some people they many be one and the same. It is all in how you express yourself with a color and how consistently you wear it or surround yourself with the color that makes it your signature shade.
• Mamie Eisenhower - She wore a pink gown covered with 2,000 pink rhinestones to Ike’s first inauguration, and the shade of her dresses and accessories came to be known as “First Lady Pink” or “Mamie Pink.” Pink was also her preferred hue for entertaining and decorating. As a popular first lady American's quickly picked up on her palette, which was “right in line with the exuberance of the time,” says Pam Kueber, founder of Save the Pink Bathrooms. Pink existed before Mamie, of course, but “the penchant for pink in the home — especially bathroom fixtures and tiles, but also kitchen appliances and then cabinets — was at a frenzy from about 1954 through to 1960 or so.”
• Pink - Called the most trailblazing artist of her generation, singer-songwriter, Alecia Beth Moore (born September 8, 1979), is known professionally as Pink. A name linked to the color of sweetness and innocence had a rather raunchy beginning - Pink Reveals Story Behind Stage Name.
Companies & Brands Identified by Pink
• Victoria’s Secret
• Mary Kay
• T-Mobile - [See Does T-Mobile Own Magenta?]
• Breast Cancer
• Thomas Pink
• Owens Corning [See Pink Trademark]
• Baskin Robbins
• Vineyard Vines
Songs that Feature the Color Pink
• Mr. Pink Eyes by The Cure on the Lovecats single
• Pink by Aerosmith
• Pink & Blue by OutKast on The Love Below
• Pink Cadillac by Bruce Springsteen
• Pink Cashmere by Prince on The Hits 1
• A Pink Dream by The Cure on the Mint Car single
• Pink Elephant by Cherry Poppin’ Daddies
• Pink Houses by John Cougar Mellencamp
• Pink Maggit by Deftones
• Pink Panther Theme by Henry Mancini
JANUARY 2022- Supervisory Meetings 5 & 6 Notes
Gina Dominique, "ChromaTheory Painting, Image 7339a", cropped, Dec 2021
Discussion notes (researcher)
In attendance: Mark Roughley- Lead Supervisor
Borinquen Gallo- TT Supervisor
Gina Dominique Hersey- PGR
Mark Roughley stated that Colin Fallows is out ill, and prior to submission, I should not, as previously instructed, forward my Programme Approval Application form to him. Instead, prior to submission, I am to have one more round of revisions with my supervisors.
Points emphasized included:
-New revisions made
-Reverse order of Research Questions posed
-Ask "How can the exclusionary art historical narrative be reframed?"
-Make sure to state that I am "challenging" the canon of color theory
-Include "post-feminist" abstract painting
-Include personal and political
-Within the literary review, include:
--Summary of findings
---Empowerment of women
-Describe what is found
--Make list an appendix and use space to write an Introductory paragraph
-Clarify the methodologies in 4 bullet points
1) Artists writings format
2) Literature review
3) Auto-ethnographic- weekly art based self-study
4) Interviews (surveys?)-qualitative analysis
-Attach images of my work and studio in appendices pdfs and add as links
--Appendix A-list of Abstract painting techniques
--Appendix B-Color Theory time line
--Appendix C- examples of skin tone charts
--Appendix D- pics of my works in progress&studio
--separate Bibliography pdf file
--add process blog link to the above, as its own
Supervisor discussion notes
~Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
~Revise, then within a few days, re-"share" Programme Approval Application form via google drive.
Discussion notes (researcher)
On Friday, 21 January, 2022, via zoom, Transart Supervisor Robyn Ferrell and I met for 75 minutes. We discussed my recently submitted Programme Approval Application, as well as my new studio work...7 more acrylic paintings on canvas or linen and twelve 12 x 12" acrylic on paper.
Supervisor Ferrell and I specifically focused on how I might proceed on the paintings, now 30 total. She suggested they may be now be complete, but acknowledged I will know that when they are. We looked at past work on my website, and she suggested I consider making a second canvas and possibly, for some existing paintings, also a third...similar to how I approached my "Pink Drishti" portfolio.
That is, I keep these new gestural canvases as they are and, to resolve them, make a geometric abstract canvas to pair with, i.e., as a diptych. And/or to complete some, that I consider making a second or third canvas using a "color field" painting approach, i.e., gestural canvas, plus a geometric canvas, and a color field canvas...all within a triptych.
She thinks using this approach instead of what I was considering, which is to complete these canvases by drawing in pencil on top of the gestural brushwork, then paint with acrylics geometric shapes...either circles or squares...in a line or grid-like fashion...how I made my "Luminious Matter" portfolio, means that I will not loose too much of the energy and information the gestural canvases now contain.
In all instances we discussed and imagined the "graphics" or shapes and colors being borrowed/appropriated from popular online or print advertisements of skin care products, i.e. that directly or indirectly reference "The Fitzpatrick Skin Type Scale". We both agree and like the popular cultural references as an approach for the next step, as it covers "race/ethnicity" and the codification of gender aims of my thesis project...as well as being 21st C. culturally specific.
Supervisor discussion notes
Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
Once it is published/available, read Neal Pearson's "Mission" text.
Prof. Ferrell also suggested that I might investigate the various skin tones of Renaissance paintings...that is, in "Pre-colonialized" Italy, which I will do.
DECEMBER 2021- Studio Praxis- Underpaintings
Gina Dominique, an under painting from new series, acrylic on canvas, 2021
From October through December 2021 I started 30+ acrylic paintings on canvas. The first dozen, two 30 x 40" canvases plus ten 6 and 8" squares, were test paintings. One of those became the inspiration for a series of about twenty new works, still in the under-painting phase. The canvas pictured here has the color palette and kinds of gestural marks that typify the pieces. I am thinking of my olive skin tone, the blood that runs through my veins and pumps through my heart...and the fact that no matter ones skin color, all of our blood and organs are all basically the same reds, yellows and blues. I am realizing all of this in the context of abstract paintings. Do you see it?
DECEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 10/11- Global Color
Hands holding powdered colors for an Indian Holi celebration, cropped
Protestant Orange The Loyal Orange Institution, commonly
known as the Orange Order, is an international Protestant fraternal order based in Northern Ireland and primarily associated with Ulster Protestants. It also has lodges in England, Scotland and the Republic of Ireland, as well as in parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, Togo and the United States. The Orange Order was
founded by Ulster Protestants in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict, as a fraternity sworn to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, established in 1798. Its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant king William of Orange, who defeated Catholic king James II in the Williamite–Jacobite War (1688–1691). The order is best known for its yearly marches, the biggest of which are held on or around 12 July (The
Twelfth), a public holiday in Northern Ireland. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_Order
Red Cross/Red Crescent The red cross emblem came into existence more than 150 years ago when the Geneva Conventions adopted it to protect medical personnel assisting the wounded on the battlefield. It is one of the most recognized symbols in the world because, during armed conflict, the red cross emblem means “don’t shoot,” that this person, vehicle, building or equipment is not part of the fight but is providing impartial assistance. The emblem provides protection for military medical units, transportation of the wounded, and for the Red Cross's humanitarian aid. The global Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement—including the American Red Cross—utilizes the emblem to signify our promise of voluntary, neutral and impartial assistance to all people in need, regardless of race, religion or citizenship status. Countries around the world protect the red cross emblem and limit its use to official Red Cross organizations and programs, as well as the medical services of their armed forces. In the United States, only the American Red Cross and the medical corps of the Armed Forces are permitted by law to use the red cross emblem. www.redcross.org/about-us/news-and-even…
Green Cross A group called the Hospitallers of St. Lazarus originally used the green cross over nine hundred years ago. The word Lazarus is Hebrew for "whom God has helped", it was also the name of a man who was in numerous stories that connect him to Jesus Christ. It is unknown whether or not the standard symbol for first aid was created using the green cross of the Hospitallers of St. Lazarus as a base, however, it is clear that the Hospitallers were people who gave first aid too. www.mysafetysign.com/first-aid-symbol
Wedding White In nineteenth century Great Britain, the color white became synonymous with marriage and weddings. Its popularity quickly grew and it was embraced throughout Europe and America.
A “white wedding” is a traditional formal or semi-formal wedding. The term originates from the white colour of the wedding dress, which first became popular with Victorian era elites after Queen Victoria wore a white lace dress at her wedding. The white wedding style was given another significant boost in 1981, when three-quarter billion people—one out of six people around the globe—watched Charles, Prince of Wales marry Diana Spencer in her elaborate white taffeta dress with a 25-foot-long train. This wedding is generally considered the most influential white wedding of the 20th century. Globally, weddings are often religious events. Therefore, the influence of religion is significant. The white wedding in Europe and the United States, which has become mainstream worldwide, is deeply related to Christian values. The white dress has become as much a symbol of a Christian wedding as wedding bands and diamond engagement rings, if not more. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_wedding
Fertile Green 15th C. Dutch painter Jan Van Eyck uses a number of symbolic elements within his Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, dated 1434. The green of the woman's dress symbolizes hope, fertility and represents her current or a hoped for pregnancy. (Some scholars believe the wedding portrait was painted after the bride’s death, which may have occurred during child birth.)
And since dyeing fabric such a shade was difficult and expensive, the intense brightness of the green also indicates wealth, (Arnolfini was a wealthy Italian merchant); the dog, fidelity; the broom, domestic life; and on the finial of the bedpost, a statue of St. Margaret, who is the patron saint of childbirth. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnolfini_Portrait
Wedding Red in the Far East and parts of India is considered a festive, joyful color. It signifies good luck, prosperity, and has underlying associations with fertility. Always an auspicious color, red was first worn by Indian monks and hermits in 300 B.C., but wasn’t worn by brides until the Mughal Era in the early 16th century. With astrology so closely connected to the Hindu religion, red is also a symbol of Mars—the planet that rules marriage... “In Indian culture, the woman is the one who is leaving her house and going to the man’s house to be with his family. It’s a far bigger change for the woman than the man, so it is appropriate that she be the one commanding the most attention and wears a bold color like red...” www.brides.com/why-do-indian-brides-wea…
Aboriginal body painting is an ancient tradition which carries deep spiritual significance for Australian Indigenous People. Cultural rituals including body painting differ between Aboriginal Tribes and topographic location. They are related to spiritual matters and are very creative. Different colored clays and ochres are applied in a variety of designs according to the person’s totem. For example, dancers wear yellow ochre and white body paint in a traditional bee’s nest motif. The dancers totems or ancestors are spiritually awakened during the body painting ritual.
The specific designs and motifs used by the Aboriginals reveal their relationships to their family group, social position, tribe, precise ancestors, totemic fauna and tracts of land.
There are very strict guidelines to how the body painting and adornment is carried out and an Aboriginal person is not allowed to just use any motives or adornment in their transformation. They must follow traditional, respected patterns. The person adorned with the body paint often takes on the spiritual part of their ancestor dancing, immersed in their character. www.aboriginal-art-australia.com/aborig…
Natural Hues Throughout the world, evidence of natural dyeing in many ancient cultures has been discovered. Textile fragments dyed red from roots of an old world species of madder (Rubia tinctoria) have been found in Pakistan, dating around 2500 BC. Similar dyed fabrics were found in the tombs of Egypt. Tyrean purple dye was discovered in 1500 B.C. and was produced from the glandular secretions of a number of mollusk species. Purple dye was extremely expensive to produce as it required nearly 12,000 mollusks to produce 3.5 ounces of dye. It was the color of royalty. Lichens were used to produce ochril, a purple dye, which was called the “poor person’s purple”. European settlers in North America learned from Native Americans to use native plants to produce various colored dyes. www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/ethnobotany/d…
Retablos are devotional paintings from Catholic Mexican folk art traditions. They are typically painted on tin, with yellow rays that represent God’s light, green that represents nature and the growth of life-sustaining crops, and red that represents both the Holy Ghost and the transient nature of life. More generally retablo is also the Spanish term for a retable or reredos above an altar. Sometimes it is a large altarpiece painting or an elaborate wooden structure with sculptures. The Latin etymology of the Spanish word means "board behind". Aside from being found behind the altar, "similar ornamental structures are built and carved over facades and doorways”, called overdoors. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retablo
Holi an Indian subcontinent celebration dates back to the 4th century CE. It marks the beginning of spring after a long winter, symbolic of the triumph of good over evil. On the day of Holi, entire streets and towns turn red, green and yellow as people throw brightly colored powder into the air and splash them on others. Each color carries a meaning. Red, for example, symbolizes love and fertility while green stands for new beginnings...time.com/5799354/what-is-holi/
DECEMBER 2021- Supervisory Meetings 3 & 4 Notes
Gina Dominique, "ChromaTheory Painting, Image 7342", cropped, Dec 2021
Discussion notes (researcher)
~Two Transart Supervisory members, Robyn Ferrell and Borinquen Gallo met with me for a zoom studio visit. They asked poignant questions and constructively critiqued my new work. Both voiced approval of the amount of new paintings (approximately 30 canvases of varying sizes) that I started since the last, Nov. 10 Supervisory meeting.
~They had seen two new paintings previously, and the newer work demonstrates a significant change in color palette and brushwork style. Both supervisors Ferrell and Gallo noted that they are encouraged that my praxis, or studio-based project is underway. Because they were overwhelmingly enthusiastic and supportive of the new work, I felt affirmed in my decisions and actions to altering the colors and my gestural, more painterly, less cerebral approach. It was a productive meeting.
~Then, on Friday 16 Dec. at 11:30 EST, Lead Supervisor Mark Roughley and I met. I showed him images of the same new body of work that R Ferrell and B Gallo saw in my studio last week. He had a similar positive response, which is affirming. Like Supervisor Gallo, MR's impressions of the imagery was to associate it with the body, with skin specifically. Encouraged, I will proceed with painting the new work. Professor Roughley and I also discussed my practice-based thesis proposal. Then we set up a regular monthly supervisory meeting schedule for the second Friday of each month from 10-11 AM EST. Our first meeting date is Friday, January 14, 2022. We booked one per month through July 8, 2022.
~I emailed both Transart supervisory members.
~This Tuesday I viewed a zoom recording of the mandatory Induction event via link sent by Colin Fallows:
Re. Faculty PGR Induction on the provided link & passcode
~I found the information helpful in learning to navigate the LJMU administrative apps and functions (eDoc, Canvas and courses within), and with beginning to learn the administrative LJMU doctoral program team, etc. I was able to add a PGR course to my Canvas site. And via eDoc, I navigated to an offline version of the Programme Approval Form. I emailed both links and passcode to both external Supervisors.
~Yesterday, I attended a doctoral academy session on correctly formatting the Programme Approval Form thesis proposal. Last evening and this morning I started to update it. Professor Roughley and I talked about it. I am in a more focused state of mind, so am using more specific-to-my-practice language. Once I have restructured enough of the draft, I will email all three advisors a link to the word document. We have all agreed that if anyone cannot access it, I will drop it into google docs, and will send that link so we can all access/work on it there.
Supervisor discussion notes
~Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
1. Because they requested a copy of the zoom session I agreed to email it to both Advisors Ferrell and Gallo.
2. During and after Dec. 16, when I meet with Advisory Committee Chair, Mark Roughley and we schedule next meetings, I will inform both Transart Advisors Robyn Ferrell and Borenquin Gallo and schedule regular monthly meetings with them.
3. Both external advisory committee members agreed to work with me on editing my Programme Description, aware that the submission is due by January 15, 2022. If possible we will do it via MS 360 cloud app...word doc. If she does not have access, I will drag and paste word doc to google docs for B. Gallo.
NOVEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 9/11- Color in Design
The Fine Line Between Art and Design
-USA Today Front Page
The eye moves from largest color image directly under the masthead to the medium-sized color image below it and then back up to the smaller color image on the left. This creates a circular motion, which keeps the viewer involved and scanning the page.
The USA Today design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Initially, only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format. The paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as a “McPaper” or "television you can wrap fish in", because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of content. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U.S. readers abroad, followed four months later on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball '85", which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USA_Today
During the early 1980s Barbara Kruger perfected a signature agitprop style, using cropped, large-scale, black-and-white photographic images juxtaposed with raucous, pithy, and often ironic aphorisms, printed in Futura Bold typeface against black, white, or deep red text bars. The inclusion of personal pronouns in works like Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1981 and Untitled (I Shop Therefore I Am), 1987, implicates viewers by confounding any clear notion of who is speaking. These rigorously composed mature works function successfully on any scale. Their wide distribution—under the artist’s supervision—in the form of umbrellas, tote bags, postcards, mugs, T-shirts, posters, and so on, confuses the boundaries between art and commerce and calls attention to the role of the advertising in public debate.
White text on red banner background creates very readable type. Use of banner boxes or headlines is directly appropriated from her years of working in advertising and newspaper graphic departments.
-Robert Wesley Wilson (1937-2020) was an American artist and one of the leading designers of psychedelic posters. Best known for designing posters for Bill Graham of the Filmore in San Francisco, he invented a style that is now synonymous with the peace movement, the psychedelic era and the 1960s. In particular, he was known for inventing and popularizing a "psychedelic" font around 1966 that made the letters look like they were moving or melting.
His style was heavily influenced by Art Nouveau. Wilson was considered to be one of "The Big Five" San Francisco poster artists, along with Alton Kelley, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin, and Stanley Mouse. Wilson often used complementary color schemes for their visual vibration.
April Greiman is an American designer widely recognized as one of the first designers to embrace computer technology as a design tool. Greiman is also credited, along with early collaborator Jayme Odgers, with helping to import the European New Wave design style to the US during the late 70s and early 80s."
April Greiman’s Poster from Design Quarterly No. 133 –
“Does it Make Sense?” 1986, shown here, is interesting in that it can be viewed from any orientation. And her use of monochromatic color scheme unifies divergent visual elements.
Pantone is the most commonly used brand of spot color inks. Employed in graphics, packaging, and products. In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run, whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors.
The widespread offset-printing process is composed of the four spot colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) commonly referred to as CMYK. More advanced processes involve the use of six spot colors (hexachromatic process), which add orange and green to the process (termed CMYKOG). The two additional spot colors are added to compensate for the ineffective reproduction of faint tints using CMYK colors only. However, offset technicians around the world use the term spot color to mean any color generated by a non-standard offset ink; such as metallic, fluorescent, or custom hand-mixed inks.
-Color and Type Readability
Readability is related to how the type is arranged (or typeset) and therefore is controlled by the designer. Factors affecting type’s readability include:
Type size: When setting text, the smaller the size, the more challenging it can be to read. The demographics of your intended audience should be taken into consideration when deciding on a size for text.
Type case: Stick to upper and lowercase when readability is of prime importance.
Line spacing (aka leading): The amount of line spacing needed to improve readability will depend on the size and design of a typeface, as well as its x-height. Therefore, when ease of reading is of high importance, make sure there is enough line spacing to maximize readability, which in general is at least two to three points for print, and a bit more for smaller digital devices.
Line length: For best readability, stick to ‘average’ line length, which is usually between 45 and 70 characters.
Color, or contrast: The color of the type and background can either make the type more legible or almost Impossible to read. So make sure there is enough color contrast between the type and its background. This is important when you are using black and white (and tints of the former) as well as color. When styling type for digital usage, as they can vary dramatically in how they display color and contrast, be sure to allow for variation from one device, platform, and setting to another.
Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people. Colors can also enhance the effectiveness of placebos. (Ex. red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants.) How color influences individuals may differ depending on age, gender, and culture. For instance, heterosexual men tend to report that red outfits enhance female attractiveness, while heterosexual females deny any outfit color impacting that of men. Although color associations can vary contextually between cultures, color preference is to be relatively uniform across gender and race.
Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Marketers see color as important, as color can influence a consumers' emotions and perceptions about goods and services. Logos for companies are important, since the logos can attract more customers. This happens when customers believe the company logo matches the personality of the goods and services, such as the color pink heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. Colors are also important for window displays in stores. Research shows that colors such as red tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cool colors such as blue being more favorable. Red and yellow, as a combination, can stimulate hunger, which may help to explain, in part, the success of fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s, Burger King, and In-N-Out Burger. The phenomenon has been referred to as the “ketchup & mustard” theory.
For Poison, Dior came up with the color of the perfume before the scent was developed. Dark, complex hues appeal to a higher economic clientele. See image here.
-The Color of Home Computing
Apple was the first to make the computer a household item and give it color. Soon, most other manufacturers followed suit. iMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, and has evolved through seven distinct forms.
In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor, mainly enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, which was refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive. The second major revision, the iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a freely moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, the iMac G5 and the Intel iMac respectively, placed all the components immediately behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base.
The 2003 iMac was snow white. The shape of the base is echoed in the form of the twin stereo speakers. All of the corners from the monitor to the keyboard were rounded off. The fifth major revision (mid 2007) shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision (late 2012) uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, and uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions. This allows it to be thinner at the edge than older models, with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm (but the same maximum depth). It also includes a dual microphone setup and includes solid-state drive (SSD) or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid-state and hard disk drives. This version of the iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch (55 cm) version released in November and the 27-inch (69 cm) version in December; these were refreshed in September 2013, with new Haswell processors, faster graphics, faster and larger SSD options and 802.11ac Wi-Fi cards.
In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch (69 cm) iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels. The new model also includes a new processor, graphics chip, and IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch (55 cm) iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels. It has the same new processor, graphics chip, and I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options.
On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version called the iMac Pro, which features Intel Xeon processors and standard SSD storage. It shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017. The iMac Pro was discontinued in 2021.
On April 20, 2021, Apple announced a 24" iMac (actual diagonal screen size is 23.5 in.) with an Apple M1 processor, its first as part of its transition to Apple silicon. It comes in 7 colors (Silver, Blue, Green, Orange, Yellow, Purple, and Pink) with a 4.5K Retina display. On the base configuration, the M1 iMacs come with two Thunderbolt 3/USB 4 ports, and two USB Type-C 3.1 Gen 2 ports on the higher configurations. Apple claims that the M1 iMac offers up to 85% faster CPU performance than the previous 21.5” iMac models. This iMac is the thinnest being only 11.5mm thin due to the entire logic board and speakers being housed in the bottom “chin” of the iMac.
The computer is now a metallic screen floating on a brushed metal sculptural base. Its minimal design continues to influence its competitors as well as dominate the market.
-Masculine (Power) Yellow
Power tools normally come in an array of silver and black colors. DeWalt’s use of yellow not only makes their line of tools easily recognizable but has also worked as a branding trademark.
The yellow color for commercial construction tools is purely cultural. This color is often associated with construction, but the main reason for using such a bright color is because construction equipment needs to be visible to people who work on a job site.
-Picking Color for the Web
You can configure the Adobe Color Picker to let you choose only colors that are part of the web-safe palette or choose from specific color systems. You can also access an HDR (high dynamic range) picker to choose colors for use in HDR images.
The first thing you need to know is how to access the color picker. Either clicking the foreground/background color swatches, which are located on the bottom left of your screen in the tool panel by default, or creating a “solid color” adjustment layer will bring up the color picker.
-Motion Graphics: Using Warm and Cool Colors
Great motion design relies heavily on color. The colors used in a project create an emotional response in viewers. Having a basic understanding of color theory can help you set the mood of a project. The cooler hues of the background appear to visually recede, pushing the warmer range of hues to the foreground.
The color wheel can be split down the middle, between warm colors and cool colors. Warm colors are on the red/yellow side, while cool colors are on the green/blue side, though as you can see in the graphic below, there are cooler and warmer shades of each color.
Warm and cool colors can work together, as you’ll see in the color combinations below, but in general you want to avoid using too many warm and cool shades, as this can appear chaotic. It’s a better idea to pick just two or three colors that work well together.
The primary function of color vision is to make it easier to identify objects, and indeed, the use of color in games reflect this. We make apples red in games because they are also red in the real world, and so we can recognize them easier in the game. But color has many other functions in games, as it does in art, design, and film…
Color is a powerful way to evoke emotion. Color grading is a popular method used (adapted from film) to adjust the colors of games in one sweep; usually with the purpose of changing the mood.
Sometimes, a color change can also be useful to reduce emotional impact. For example, to look less violent, some games color their blood green to pass certification requirements (such as those in Germany).
In Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning, the monster is comprised of warm hues while the background uses atmospheric perspective to create depth.
-Warm and Cool Colors Reversed
Higher contrast ratios typically mean deeper blacks, which makes a big difference in overall picture quality. It's of particular importance for dark scenes in movies and games, especially in a dark room.
When reverse contrast is used, see The Game Room still here, backgrounds have lighter softer tints, while the main character in the foreground is composed of deeper, darker more saturated blue and violet hues. This helps to isolate the figure from the background, as well as focus attention on the main character.
NOVEMBER 2021- Transart Intensive Session 12: Formed In Entanglement
Creative Processes Praxis diagram, cropped
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 10 hours between 27 & 28 Nov 2021
PART I: Knowing, Writing, Publishing: A Work Group With Marc Herbst
Marc Herbst introduced Claudia Firth, Stevphen Shukaitis, and Pascale Ife Williams, and each presented on their individual praxis.
I.e., Pascale Ife asked of herself:
What is your/my guiding framework?
What is the goal or aim of your/my inquiry?, and
How are you/am I magic?
Then stated that she frames her guiding questions and builds her research design around them. Her research, done mostly in notebooks includes drawings, cartoons, graphics (charts and diagrams), text, thought bubbles, collages, informal interviews, etc. She has a visual based praxis. Her "finished" pieces appear to be large scale collages. In all of it, she uses black, queer feminism radical (grasping at the root), inclusive, and expansive...ex. she relies on her lived experiences, which are dialectical (multi-perspective, sometimes opposing viewed) and reflexive...deeply thoughtful. She often used words such as "loving", "caring", "healing" to describe her processes and thinking.
She asked "How does the ecology of black truama move from the center to the margins?" She outlined her praxis implications:
+Scholarship, in which scholar-activism is possible, and non-academic knowledge is productive.
+Action/Organizing, where the individual, collective and community all prevent, intervene, and transform.
+Care and Community in which violence exists, each member commits to healing... beginning with self, and uses resources to engage in care and healing.
PART II: Workshop segment by Marc instructing attending PGRs to write 3 key questions, and develop one paragraph of writing with an accompanying image:
a. Research based- Reading/writing. Ex. Done in small groups or collectives 3-5 people. Can be local, national or international
b. Practice based- Execution of studio work. Ex. Either solo or collaborative practice. For me, paintings, artwork, installations
c. Publishing based- Manifestation into the world. Ex. blog, newsletter, exhibitions, printed text (ex. zines, books and/or journal articles), public or private installation.
PART III: Workshop when Marc assigned three groups of three PGRs a 1-hour collective collaboration assignment
We established how we will work together through our personal entanglements with our own research. We were to outline how we move through our context. Then discuss how our entanglements and collaborations facilitate our desire or need to do this research. Each person spoke within the group of three for a total of 5 minutes. Then, after that person's presentation, for the following 5 minutes, the group discussed the experience. I was in a group with Alden and Yvette.
PART IV: Workshop during which time Marc posed a self-interview.
GD-Q1: What is the context for my main research areas and/or interests?
GD-A1: As a full-time art professor at the City University of New York, which posts "Equitable education in a more inquisitive world" as its Vision Statement, I teach painting, art history and theory from inclusive, global, or multi-cultural perspectives. This is my first semester teaching a studio-lecture theory course called Relativity of Color. In preparation for it, my research led me to pose my PhD research questions and answers. Ex. Using my own voice, how can I positively contribute to the historically western, exclusively hegemonic masculine thinking on color?...that is, how can I teach this from a theoretically inclusive position?*
GD-Q2: What is motivating my research, and what is my theoretical perspective?
GD-A2: As a painter and installation artist, my praxis or studio practice and research involves my entanglements with the complex phenomena of light, color, and the contemporary history/practices of female constructed, spiritually based abstract painting. My theoretical approach is from a contemporary art methodolgical position, including formalism, iconography, marxism (socio-economics), feminism, autobiography and biography, structuralism and Post-Structuralism (Deconstruction), and Psychoanalysis.
GD-Q3: What are my praxis' execution methods?
GD-A3: I propose to produce a *praxis exhibition (ex. show of paintings, and/or an installation...), and to write and publish up to twelve 3,000 word essays, working title: ChromaTheory: Twelve Brief Essays on Color, outlined as follows:
1. Philosophy of Color- Ex. Ancients take on it. Ex. Aristotle and da Vinci published works on color. (Create paintings or a body of work based on this...painting with Aristotle, Plato and other ancient ideas of color...ref. their palettes…? Do the same from da Vinci's philosophy of color and other Modern color philosophies…apply/interpret his/their color ideas to paintings within the larger body of work. “Philosophy of Color”)
2. Formal Color Theory- or title this essay “Color for color’s sake”…Formal color- ex. Isaac Newton’s ROYGBIV rainbow, RYB based color wheels, RGB and CYMK, Pantone color chart, and digital models. (Create a body of work based on this) blog.hubspot.com/marketing/color-theory…
3. Color Iconographies (The Underlying Meaning of Color)- ex. Iconographic and Iconological Color- discuss colors, color palettes or color programs, and what they mean symbolically. Ex. color psychology (Create a body of work based on this...maybe a color installation that works like "stations" of the rainbow...one piece for each color in gradient or striated expression (not graphic but painterly)…or maybe solid...present each on its own full length half-tube like concave shaped “canvas”. To obtain a color bath or a “color recalibration”, stand in or in front of one. And/or paint one that is rainbow/chakra based.
4. Gendered Color- Ex. Chart the history of how various cultures (from ancients on) associate which/various colors w/ various genders. Ex. Anc. Egyptian, Anc. Greek, Middle Ages, Renaissance/modern color: gender in art-history.
5. Color and Sexuality- Write and/or create artwork on colors and how or why they are associated with various sexual orientations. Ex. Consider the LGBTQ2 rainbow flag.
6. Socio-economics and Color- Ex. Calculate how and why $/class/wealth/power, and lack thereof, effects access to various colors. Make body of “socio-economic colors based paintings” Ex. Ancient Egyptian gold for pharaohs, Ancient Roman red (robe) on emperors, Pompeii Red from frescoes “belonged” to the elites, early Christian mosaics define the power of the church, early Middle Ages gold is associated w/ Christian Carolingian church’s increased wealth/power, Gothic blue (stained glass and manuscript illumination) associated w/ (French) kings/royalty.
7. Autobiographical/Biographical Color- write an essay on artists/designers…people who created a color or a palette that “still sticks” to them/defines them and their work. Ex. “Yves Klein blue”, Guston’s “fat pink”. Create a portfolio of biographical/autobiographical based works using on one's own interpretation of their skin tone. I consider gathering information by creating and circulating, possibly via process blog or an email, to one of my TT research collectives, a version of the “Fitzpatrick Scale”, with the request of those willing to participating to use the chart to “self-identify” their own skin tone/s. I will participate in the research study myself, and include, through social conditioning, how I/we have learned to self-identify or label my/our own skin tone. (I am thinking again about how “liminality” pertains to my own ethnic heritage, which produced my olive skin tone. Ex. On the Fitzpatrick Scale, my skin tone is between a Type III, Medium White to Olive and a Type IV, Olive Moderate Brown. It's curious how no simply "olive" option is charted?)
8. Ethno-biographical Colors- Skin Pigmentation (historical “scientific” race theory) w/ charts, diagrams, maps, etc. 19th-20th C. Fake scientists and their racism that is behind race theories, which scientifically does not actually exist. Race is a socially constructed idea (as is color, gender, language, mathematics, etc.) the idea of race is based on skin, eye and other human pigmentation. Create a body of work based on conceptual/abstracted skin pigmented paintings...paint and skin share the similar spaces) Ref: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Luschan%27s_c…
...and its historical antecedent: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropometry
9. Color Linguistics- Ex. The Big Bang of Color… “in the beginning was the word and the word was with God, and the word was God”, and “…let there be light…” …presumably in that instant, color was also born. Ex. (Create a body of work based on this...ex. Color inventory and/or diagrams…maybe ancient color references (Aristotle’s color ideas) fit here too?), AND/OR Poststructural Color, OR Color Deconstructed- It is said that color is born of light. Is it, or is light born of color? :) (Create a body of work based on this...maybe a colored light installation)
10. Digital Colors- Ex. the internet, digital reality and the proliferation/democratization of (ephemeral) color…or is it? (One can configure the Adobe Color Picker that allows for web-safe color selections or for specific color systems color selections. You can also access an HDR (high dynamic range) picker to choose colors for use in HDR images. Create a body of work based on this…(employ David Batchelor’s Chromophobia Theory) helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/choosin…
11. Global Colors- or Ethnobiographics of Color- Which colors do various ethnic groups identify as their colors/palettes? And/or write on the history national Flag color schemes (of all 195 internationally “recognized” countries/nations?) Write about and/or create a body of work based on these ideas.
12. Color Futurists- write about and/or create a body of artwork/paintings based on “Color Forecasting”…annual or seasonal CAUS (Color Association United States) oldest color-forecasting service, or by Color Council, or by Trend Union.
NOVEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 8/11: Color in 19th & 20th Century Painting
Mark Rothko (1903-1970), Saffron (cropped), 1957, 69½ x 53¾ in (175.6 x 136.5 cm)
Attention to the counter-intuitive, but observable, effects of different qualities of light on objects led the mid-late 19th C. French Impressionist painters to some novel technical practices that are clearly visible in their paintings:
First, unlike earlier 19th C. landscape painters who sketched outdoors and painted in their studios, because Impressionsists needed to observe colors outside of the artificial setting of the studio painted, they painted en plein air, in the open air. Monet famously asserted that he had no studio at all.
Second, where academic artists tended to begin their paintings by covering the entire canvas with a medium-dark, reddish-brown undercoating or “ground,” against which they would work up to lighter tones and down to darker ones, the Impressionists tended to first paint on a light-colored ground helping them to produce works that look saturated in light.
Third, although color usage varies considerably among the Impressionists, it is generally true that they tended to avoid the dark earth colors such as umbers, siennas and lamp black that had dominated the color palettes of earlier traditional modern painting. Instead the Impressionists rendered entire scenes in hues closer to the colors of the light spectrum: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, mixed with generous amounts of white.
As a result and fourth, rather than mixing “complementary colors” together, which makes brown tones, the Impressionists tended to use complementary colors next to one another. Complementary colors are opposite one another on a color wheel, such as red and green, violet and yellow, and blue and orange. When they are placed adjacent, they have the effect of intensifying one another...Like painting on a light-colored ground, the use of complementary colors helped the Impressionists to increase the apparent brightness of their paintings.
French Impressionist painter Claude Monet used a warm palette of intense hues to create some of his paintings of haystacks that he painted in the summer sun. He believed the color of the atmosphere (especially in winter) was violet. He used a cool palette of blues and violets to convey the feeling of the same haystacks in winter.
-Eastern Color Traditions
In his print series Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji, circa 1830-1832, Japanese printmaker Katsushika Hokusai used large flat areas of color. His and other Japanese prints were collected by 19th C.. European artists, so were especially influential in Impressionist and Post Impressionist developments.
Post-Impressionist Paul Cézanne’s use of open brushstrokes to create faceted areas of color is clearly evident in his Forest painting. To create a unified surface, he employs the same constructed planar approach to everything in the painting, including the sky, trees, and grounds.
Cézanne used a color system that he called modulation – and its subtle gradations in color – which required a larger range of colors to work from. Rather than mix colors on his palette to create new colors, he liked to use his colors, as we say today, directly from the tube.
There were two methods of showing light and dark in Impressionist painting. Modeling, created shading from light to dark, for example gradating a blue object from a light blue to a dark blue. Modulation instead expresses light to shadow/dark by using warm to cool colors.
According to Emile Bernard, Cézanne habitually used no less than nineteen colors: Cobalt Blue, Ultramarine, Prussian Blue, Emerald Green Viridian, Terre Verte, Vermilion, Red Ochre, Burnt Siena, Rose Madder, Carmine Lake, Burnt Lake, Brilliant Yellow, Naples Yellow, Chrome Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Raw Siena, Silver White and Peach Black. This list was made in 1904, towards the end of Cézanne’s life, but from about 1880 onward, his palette remained substantially unchanged. — Gerstle Mack, Paul Cézanne
Pointillism is a painting technique in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image. Branching out from Impressionism, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886. The term "Pointillism" was coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, but is now used without its earlier pejorative connotation. The movement Seurat began with this technique is known as "Neo-impressionism or Post Impressionism". The Divisionists used a similar technique of patterns to form images, though with larger cube-like brushstrokes.
Painting in the pointillist technique using small dots or dabs, Pissarro took Ogden Rood’s color concepts and applied them to painting. In visual color mixing, the artist doesn’t premix colors on a palette then apply them to the canvas, but paints tiny dots or points of pure unmixed color directly. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointillism
Fauvism, Matisse and Color
Matisse burst onto the French art in the late 19th century as leader of the Fauvist group — painters with a wild use of colors that has no basis in nature. This striking departure from the artistic conventions of his day left an indelible and colorful mark on art history. With an application of paint that is raw and unrefined, the Fauvists are celebrated as les fauves or “the wild beasts”. Matisse’s ideas on color and composition, and his art movement and philosophies continue to inspire contemporary artists today.
Born in 1869 to a family of weavers, and growing up in Bohain-en-Vermandois in northern France, Henri Matisse was heavily influenced by the bright colors and patterns of local textiles. Matisse greatly admired like Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh. Both artists’ ability to build form with color and unorthodox approaches to nature would inspire Matisse throughout his artistic career.
Color and the combination of colors were at the center of all Fauvist works, shaping the structure and rhythm of each painting. Because colors were used by these artists to convey emotion rather than a specific scene, skies could be red, trees could be blue and a face could be a combination of greens and purples. For example, the left side of the face in Matisse’s Madame Matisse (The Green Line), he used warmer hues, while the right side contains more cool colors.
The result of this clashing of colors was a subject rendered by the artist’s perception of their subject rather than a true depiction of the actual physical form….Furthermore, the composition of Matisse’s works are built up through the placement of color, rather than an underlying line drawing or perspectival system.
Abstract Impressionism and Color Field Painting
Color field painting is a mid-twentieth century style of abstraction that emerged in New York City. It was inspired by European modernism and closely related to late 1940’s, early 1950’s abstract expressionism,
While many of its notable early proponents were among the pioneering abstract expressionists, color field painters were characterized primarily by their large fields of flat, solid color spread across or stained into the canvas creating areas of unbroken surface and a flat picture plane.
The movement places less emphasis on gesture, brushstrokes and action in favor of an overall consistency of form and process. In color field painting "color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself.”
Self-referential: Minimalist art does not refer to anything beyond its literal presence. The materials used are not worked to suggest something else. Color, if used, is also non-referential, ex. if a dark colour is used it does not mean the artist is trying to suggest a somber mood. In his Yellow/Orange minimalist painting, Ellsworth Kelly uses color for its optical sensations. Each colored element echoes the flat illusionistic cube surface it describes. www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/m/minimal…
Color and Op Art
Op Art was a 1960s art movement that investigated optical illusions and color interactions. Some pieces were black and white, while others exploded with color. Hungarian artist Victor Vasarely is considered to be one of the predecessors of op art. His sculpture Kedzi appears to be fully three-dimensional but is really a flat plane. The 3-D effect is purely an illusion.
New Realism and Color
Through presenting what was real rather than what was appropriated or conjured, the Nouveaux Réalistes stripped art of a dogma that insisted it had to mean something. On the heels of Dada, they took the readymade object beyond negativity, banality, or polemics to become an active participant in a work of art or performance in its simple, unadorned form. An accumulation of trash became a picture. A crushed car informed a sculpture. A block of color could dwell on a wall, unapologetically itself.
Late 20th C. Visual Color Mixing
The highly decorative surface of Chuck Close’s work keeps the viewer’s eye moving between colored dots that make up the patterned surface and the overall image. Close, who is known for imposing a set of rules on a given body of work, sometimes sets himself the task of painting with only three colors: red, yellow, and cyan in thin washes of oil. By applying layers of paint in seemingly infinite combinations to each little square, he produces an electric and dazzling array of color. The candy-store hues that make up a Closee painting ultimately achieve a meditative work with alchemical appeal. brooklynrail.org/2015/10/artseen/chuck-…
Neo-expressionism and Color
The warm bright hues create a feeling of frenetic movement, pushing the image to the foreground. As the colors move into the background they become less saturated, which helps to create some sense of depth. As with earlier expressionist movements, color is used for its emotional content without regard for the natural world.
1980s Neoexpressionist style in general is often marked by vivid colours and contrasts, in the tradition of fauvism; rapid, violent brushwork; distorted subject matter; and a generally spontaneous technique, sometimes incorporating 'found' objects.
Aboriginal and Outsider Art
Aboriginal art is the oldest unbroken tradition in the world, and is iconic for its use of colours to tell stories and communicate visually. As Aboriginal culture does not have a written language, drawings and paintings are crucial to passing along knowledge and history through generations.
Materials including colours used for Aboriginal art were originally obtained from the local land. Ochre or iron clay pigments were used to produce different colours. Other colours, such as smoky greys, sage greens and saltbush mauves were later added.
True of paintings created by aboriginal men, Darby Jampitjinpa Ross uses colorful wavy lines to represent ceremonial journeys.
Digital Art and Color
The first piece of digital art that became widely known was created in the 1960s in the scientific research company Bell Labs where EAT founder Billy Klüver was employed. It was here that computer graphics specialist Kenneth C. Knowlton, in his work Young Nude, 1966, transformed a photograph of a young nude woman into an image made up of computer pixels, bringing the historical artist's muse (the naked female body) into the 21st-century art lexicon.
Vik Muniz uses bits of paper to produce his large-scale 21st C. pointillist works. He uses the same concept of visual color mixing (directly on the canvas) as Post-Impressionist Pointillist Georges Seurat used to generate his chromatic hues.
In the 1960s light art became an increasingly popular feature in modern art, running in tandem with Minimalism, which celebrated clean, pure lines and a machine-like aesthetic. In the United States various artists led the way into the Light and Space movement, which had an international influence in the next few decades.
Dan Flavin was a major figure, producing quasi-religious installations and geometric arrangements with found fluorescent light tubes. James Turrell captured natural light in powerful sculptural constructions; his ‘Skyspace’ installations open large windows into the sky beyond from architectural chambers, allowing natural light to flood through in its many permutations and weather patterns.
Art historian Calvin Tompkins writes, (Turrell’s) work is not about light, or a record of light; it is light – the physical presence of light made manifest in sensory form.
Depending upon their placement in Joe Chesla, Letting Go a Breath I Didn't Know I Was Holding, 2009, light installation, the amount and quality of light and heat each bag received influenced the algae’s growth. This impacted the color and patterns created within each of the units.
Many light art installations exist in the cities around us as public works of art, taking a variety of temporary and permanent forms, including neon signage, advertising slogans and large scale installations in public buildings, museums, and city centers, revealing the hugely spirited and adventurous ways artists continue to expand its boundaries.
NOVEMBER 2021- Studio Praxis- Color Inventory of Studio Paints
Gina Dominique, Color Inventory 1, phase 2 detail, acrylic, detail, flashe and oil on canvas, 30 x 40", 2021
During early November 2021, in my studio, on more than one dozen canvases, I began to color inventory my paint collection. This is a detail of one of the larger canvases.
NOVEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 7/11: Color and 3-Dimensionality
James Turrell, Ganzefeld, Aural exhibition installation view, Jewish Museum Berlin, 2009
-Stone sculptures are usually carved but they are sometimes assembled to form a visually interesting three-dimensional artwork. Stone is more durable than most alternative materials, making it especially important in architectural sculpture, done on the outside of buildings.
-The Myth of Whiteness - Western Classical (Greek and Roman) era statues were often painted, but assumptions about race and aesthetics have suppressed this truth. Now scholars are making a color correction.
-Since the Classical Western (Greco Roman) era, marble has been the preferred stone for sculptors in the European tradition. It is available in a wide variety of colors, from white through pink and red to grey and black. The hardest stone frequently carved is granite, at about 8 on the Mohs scale.
-20th C. sculptor Constantine Brancusi’s concept of truth in materials led him to create sculptures with highly polished surfaces to bring out the natural elegance of the materials.
…Because of the color and striation of the marble…and the highly polished finish…
-Barbara Hepworth's Mother and Child, 1934 is another sculptural piece carved from colored stone.
-Wood Finishes - baring, varnishing, and staining woods are a way of altering the color of a wooden sculpture, while still letting the natural wood grain show through. These are ways of allowing for truth in materials*.
-Totem poles are a type of monumental carving indigenous to Northwest Coast Native American artists. The form consists of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures. They are usually made from large trees, mostly western red cedar. First Nations and indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast including northern Northwest Coast Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian communities in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia, Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-chah-nulth communities in southern British Columbia, and the Coast Salish communities in Washington and British Columbia.
The word totem derives from the Algonquian word odoodem meaning (his) kinship group. The carvings may symbolize or commemorate ancestors, cultural beliefs that recount familiar legends, clan lineages, or notable events. The poles may also serve as functional architectural features, welcome signs for village visitors, mortuary vessels for the remains of deceased ancestors, or as a means to publicly ridicule someone. They may embody a historical narrative of significance to the people carving and installing the pole. Given the complexity and symbolic meanings of these various carvings, their placement and importance lies in the observer's knowledge and connection to the meanings of the figures and the culture in which they are embedded. The application of color on the planes of the form intensify the 3-dimensionality of a totem, which is typically caved in shallow relief.
-20th C. American Photo Realist sculptor Duane Hanson, born in Minnesota, spent most of his career in South Florida, was known for his life-sized hyper realistic figurative sculptures. He used live models to cast his works in various materials, including polyester resin, fiberglass, Bondo, and bronze. Duane Hanson’s sculptures look so real viewers sometimes try to converse with them. Most of his models were Hanson’s friends or colleagues.
-Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, brass, bronze and similar metals, or certain stones, and wooden furniture, or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patina
To add color to their metal artworks, some metal sculptors use patinas. In her metal The Waste That is Our Own, Phoebe Adams used a dark green patina to color the liquid, and a much softer green hued patina to color the cloth behind the pitcher. The pitcher, left bare, has no patina, but is highly polished.
-Hard porcelain glaze was usually (and stoneware salt glaze, always) fired at the same time as the raw clay body at the same high temperature. Basically, there are four principal kinds of glazes: feldspathic, lead, tin, and salt. Soft porcelain glaze was always applied in this way. www.britannica.com/art/pottery/Decorati…
-One of the most important artists of the last century, Frank Stella is a rule breaker whose style has consistently evolved over the the decades, Stella is known for his revolutionary approach to materials as well as his continued exploration of color, form, dimension, and architecture. The multi-colored, highly patterned surface of his reliefs confuses the eye and visually appears to flatten out the works.
-Glass artist Dale Chihuly captures a variety of vivid hues while working with the glass’s inherent transparency. His work is very theatrical, with swirling layers of color that move the viewer’s eye throughout the ceiling installation, image right…detail below. The shapes of the glass forms Chihuly uses are reminiscent of flowers, shells, and other organic forms.
-I was always a colorist, I’ve always had a phenomenal love of color… I mean, I just move color around on its own. So that’s where the […] paintings came from—to create that structure to do those colors, and do nothing. I suddenly got what I wanted. It was just a way of pinning down the joy of color.
...the words of Damien Hirst, the enfant terrible of the late 20th century best known for his bisected animals submerged in formaldehyde, cabinets filled with medical supplies and an installation consisting of live maggots and a severed cow’s head?
-In his Magnet TV, pioneering video artist Nam June Pike used a magnet to alter the electromagnetic field of the picture tube, which creates the blue arcing lines on the tv screen.
-Many light art installations exist in the cities around us as public works of art, taking a variety of temporary and permanent forms, including neon signage, advertising slogans and large scale installations in public buildings, museums, and city centers, revealing the hugely spirited and adventurous ways artists continue to expand its boundaries. American artist James Turrell, born May 6, 1943, is an known for his work within the Light and Space movement. His work Ganzfelds, a German word to describe the phenomenon of the total loss of depth perception as in the experience of a white-out, shown here, in this case, is effectively a total ”pink out”.
-Art that is made by shaping the land itself or by making forms in the land using natural materials like rocks or tree branches. Earthworks range from subtle, temporary interventions in the landscape to significant, sculptural, lasting alterations made with heavy earth-moving machinery. Some artists have also brought the land into galleries and museums, creating installations out of dirt, sand, and other materials taken from nature. Earthworks were part of the wider conceptual art movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Also called Land Art or Earth Art. www.moma.org/collection/terms/earthwork
-Andy Goldsworthy OBE is an English artist, sculptor, photographer and environmentalist who produces site-specific sculptures and land art situated in natural and urban environments. Goldsworthy always works from the objects he finds on location. In his Rowan Leaves & Hole, he gathered leaves from the site in varying colors.
-Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be live, through documentation, spontaneously or written, presented to a public in a Fine Art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Also known as artistic action, it has been developed through the years as a genre of its own in which art is presented live. It had an important and fundamental role in 20th century avant garde art.
-Blue Man Group is an American performance art company formed in 1987 known for its stage productions which incorporate many kinds of music and art, both popular and obscure, in its performances. Performers, known as "Blue Men", have their skin painted blue. During productions, the performers are mute and blue men always appear in groups of three.
NOVEMBER 2021- Supervisory Meeting 2 Notes
Gina Dominique, "ChromaTheory Painting", cropped, Dec 2021
LJMU/TT Practice Based PhD Supervisory Meeting, Friday, November 12, 2021 from 4:00-5:00 PM EST.
In attendance: Supervisory Lead Mark Roughley, TT Supervisors, Robyn Ferrell, Borinquen Gallo, and PGR Gina Dominique Hersey
Since the committee's first October 2021 meeting, I reviewed with Mark Roughley and Advisory committee members Robyn Ferrell and Borinquen Gallo what I was able to complete re: my "LJMU TO DO LIST", which includes:
1. I logged onto my LJMU email account, read, sorted and replied to essential emails (120 to start!)
2. I logged onto Canvas, enrolled in and completed:
A) "Doctoral Academy Welcome" module, privately, with Jo McKeon, on Friday, 5 Nov 2021, during a 1 hr. 40 min. online live zoom meeting. Jo left me with the .pptx slide show, and I took notes on her presentation. She said that I ought to eMail “Mandy” email@example.com re: the required “Ethics Module”...that I need access to it, etc.
B) "Ethics Course" Module- I Completed LJMU Canvas Module Thursday, 11 Nov 2021 at 10:05 PM EST. Because I was knocked offline multiple times, I re-took 4 or 5 of the 7 internal quizzes...one or two of them many times. Due to the technical glitches, the 90 min or so module took me about 7 hours to complete.
C) "Equity Diversity of Inclusion" (EDI) Course Module and quizzes.
3. I logged onto eDoc and:
A) Added supervision meeting notes
B) Uploaded my PhD project title via a new "change request" submission
C) Uploaded and submit my practice based PhD project (description, etc)
Regarding C) my project description, during the meeting, Chair Mark Roughley stated that he will send it back to me for reformatting. He will also email/share a properly formatted Program description.
Then Borinquen G offered comments on my re-draft. She emailed them to me and committee members via google docs. All committee members agreed to assist with edits/commments, re-drafting it via a word document, or google docs.
Since LJMU internal systems are Microsoft Office (word or .docx) based, in the long run, maybe word is the wiser choice. I, GDH, will make changes, email them to commmittee members, receive their input, revise and we will all discuss again at the next meeting. After that, by January 15, 2022, I will re-submit for approval.
Committee members stated that they read my, Gina's PhD Process Blog, and were able to get a sense of what I have been doing, reading, etc. Robyn Ferrell commented on my, GDH's Agamben Reading Log post. She stated that she will send suggestions/links to additional related readings on the phenomenology of perception.
I, GDH, shared images of color based paintings I am working on in my studio. Then I shared on the following 12 chapter text (writings, paintings, installation, light installation, unclear as yet, what will manifest) outline that I created in recent days:
"Color Contexts: the democratization of color"
1. Color History- Ex. Ancients take on it. Ex. Aristotle and da Vinci published works on color. (Create a paintings or a body of work based on this...painting with Aristotle's notions of color...borrow his "palette". Do the same from da Vinci's...apply/interpret his color ideas to paintings within the larger body of work. "Ancient and Modern Color")
2. Formal Color Theory- Ex. formal scientific color investigations. Ex. Isaac Newton’s ROYGBIV rainbow, color charts, models and wheels. (Create a body of work based on this)
3. Iconographic and Iconological Color-add underlying “meaning” of colors and color palettes or “programs”- Ex. color as symbol? (Create a body of work based on this...maybe a color installation that works like "stations" of the rainbow...each color in gradient or striated color...or maybe solid...is presented on a full length half-tube like concave shaped canvas that one stands in (front of).
4. Gender and Color- Ex. Chart the history of how various cultures (from ancients on) associate which/various colors w/ various genders. Ex. Anc. Egyptian, Anc. Greek, Middle Ages, Renaissance/modern color:gender in artworks
5. Socio-economics and Color-Ex. historical how and why $/class/wealth/power and lack there of aka poverty is associated with particular colors/palettes. Ex. Ancient Roman red (robe) on emperors, Pompeii Red from frescoes “belonged” to the elites, early Christian mosaics define the power of the church, early Middle Ages gold is associated w/ Christian Carolingian church’s increased wealth/power, Gothic blue (stained glass and manuscript illumination) associated w/ (French) kings/royalty.
6. Ethnobiographical Color-What various ethnicities identify as their colors/palettes
7. Autobiographical Color-which artists created a color/palette that “still sticks” to them/defines them…Ex. Byes Klein blue, Guston’s “fat pink”...(Create a body of my own autobiographical color/work based on this)
8. Human Color/Pigmentation (historical “scientific” race theory) w/ charts, diagrams, maps, etc. 19th-20th C. Fake scientists and their racism that is behind race theories, which scientifically does not actually exist. Race is a socially constructed idea (as is color, gender, language, mathematics, etc. the idea of race is based on skin, eye and other human pigmentation. (Create a body of work based on this...conceptual/abstracted skin pigmented paintings...paint and skin share similar if not the same space)
9. Color Linguistics- Ex. The Big Bang of Color… “in the beginning was the word and the word was with God, and the word was God”, and “…let there be light…” …presumably in that instant, color was also born. Ex. (Create a body of work based on this...ex. Color inventory and/or diagrams…?)
10. Deconstructed Color- It is said that color is born of light? Is it, or is light born of color? :) (Create a body of work based on this...maybe a colored light installation)
11. Global Color- Flag schemes of all internationally recognized countries/nations…? (Create a body of work based on this)
12. Digital color: Ex. the internet, digital reality and the proliferation/ democratization of (ephemeral) color…or is it? (You can configure the Adobe Color Picker to let you choose only colors that are part of the web-safe palette or choose from specific color systems. You can also access an HDR (high dynamic range) picker to choose colors for use in HDR images.)(Create a body of work based on this) helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/choosin…
Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
_ a) Complete "Induction Ceremony" module- (GDH: it is 11.12.21 and I still have not received email or a module in my eDoc or Canvas with link or recording…?)
_ b) Re-do "Training plan"- re-read, re-answer questions, locate “submit” and click it so that the plan shows up on my eDoc record
_ c) Receive template and restructure my program description, circulate word or google doc among committee members and discuss at next meeting. Following that, re-submit for approval.
_ d) Next Advisory Committee meeting is scheduled for Friday, Dec. 10 4PM EST.
OCTOBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 6/11: Digital Color
Digital images are made up of pixels. Pixels are composed of light and are two-dimensional. In computer graphics, pixelation (or pixellation in British English) is caused by displaying a bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual pixels, small single-colored square display elements that comprise the bitmap, are visible. Such an image is said to be pixelated (pixellated in the UK). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixelation
-Raster-based programs include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, Sketchbook Pro, and GIMP. You can resize your files, but making them larger may cause pixelation and distortion of the image. Raster images are best for illustrations and paintings that would not require them to be blown up in size.
-Vector graphics software allows users to design and manipulate computer images using geometric and mathematical commands, rather than clicks and strokes as used in drawing software. ... Vector graphics tools are often used to create high-definition illustrations for use on the web, in games, and other multimedia.
-The clean lines and discrete areas of color are characteristic features of vector-based programs. Ex. Nancy Stahl used the stamp motif in her Self Promotional Item as a recognizable element since she has designed several nature-related stamps for the U.S. Postal Service.
-More specifically, a vector graphic is an artwork made up of points, lines, and curves that are based upon mathematical equations, rather than solid colored square pixels. This means no matter the size or how far zoomed in the image is, the lines, curves, and points remain smooth.
-The RGB color model is an additive color model in which the red, green, and blue primary colors of light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.
-The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors.
-RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual red, green, and blue levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time. Thus an RGB value does not define the same color across devices without some kind of color management.
-Typical RGB input devices are color TV and video cameras, image scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRT, LCD, plasma, OLED, quantum dots, etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolor LED displays and large screens such as the Jumbotron. Color printers, on the other hand are not RGB devices, but subtractive color devices typically using the CMYK color model.
-A color picker, also called a color chooser or color tool, is a graphical user interface widget, usually found within graphics software or online, used to select colors and sometimes to create color schemes, used to select and adjust color values. In graphic design and image editing, users typically choose colors via an interface with a visual representation of a color—organized with quasi-perceptually-relevant hue, saturation and lightness dimensions (HSL) – instead of keying in alphanumeric text values. Because color appearance depends on comparison of neighboring colors (see color vision), many interfaces attempt to clarify the relationships between colors. When the tool is engaged on a color to pick, the color may also be changed from the original one selected with it. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_picker
-Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages on the World Wide Web, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. Colors may be specified as an RGB triplet or in hexadecimal format (a hex triplet) or according to their common English names in some cases. A color tool or other graphics software is often used to generate color values. In some uses, hexadecimal color codes are specified with notation using a leading number sign #. A color is specified according to the intensity of its red, green and blue components, each represented by eight bits. Thus, there are 24 bits used to specify a web color within the sRGB gamut, and 16,777,216 colors that may be so specified.
-Colors outside the sRGB gamut can be specified in Cascading Style Sheets by making one or more of the red, green and blue components negative or greater than 100%, so the color space is theoretically an unbounded extrapolation of sRGB similar to scRGB. Specifying a non-sRGB color this way requires the RGB() function call. It is impossible with the hexadecimal syntax (and thus impossible in legacy HTML documents that do not use CSS). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors
-A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations of color -- whether such representation entails an analog or a digital representation. A color space may be arbitrary, i.e. with physically realized colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches with corresponding assigned color names (including discrete numbers in for example, the Pantone collection), or structured with mathematical rigor (as with the NCS System, Adobe RGB and sRGB). A "color space" is a useful conceptual tool for understanding the color capabilities of a particular device or digital file. When trying to reproduce color on another device, color spaces can show whether you will be able to retain shadow/highlight detail, color saturation, and by how much either will be compromised.
-What are liquid crystals? We're used to the idea that a given substance can be in one of three states: solid, liquid, or gas —we call them states of matter—and up until the late 19th century, scientists thought that was the end of the story. Then, in 1888, an Austrian chemist named Friedrich Reinitzer (1857–1927) discovered liquid crystals, which are another state entirely, somewhere in between liquids and solids. Liquid crystals might have lingered in obscurity but for the fact that they turned out to have some very useful properties.
Solids are frozen lumps of matter that stay put all by themselves, often with their atoms packed in a neat, regular arrangement called a crystal (or crystalline lattice). Liquids lack the order of solids and, though they stay put if you keep them in a container, they flow relatively easily when you pour them out. Now imagine a substance with some of the order of a solid and some of the fluidity of a liquid. What you have is a liquid crystal—a kind of halfway house in between. At any given moment, liquid crystals can be in one of several possible "substates" (phases) somewhere in a limbo-land between solid and liquid. The two most important liquid crystal phases are called "nematic" and "smectic". www.explainthatstuff.com/lcdtv.html
-A PDP or plasma display panel is a type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields. Plasma TVs were the first large (over 32 inches diagonal) flat panel displays to be released to the public.
-Until about 2007, plasma displays were commonly used in large televisions (30 inches (76 cm) and larger).
-Since then, they have lost nearly all market share due to competition from low-cost LCDs and more expensive but high-contrast OLED flat-panel displays. Manufacturing of plasma displays for the United States retail market ended in 2014, and manufacturing for the Chinese market ended in 2016. Plasma displays are obsolete, having been superseded in most if not all aspects by OLED displays. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_display
-In digital imaging systems, color management (or colour management) is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.
-The primary goal of color management is to obtain a good match across color devices; for example, the colors of one frame of a video should appear the same on a computer LCD monitor, on a plasma TV screen, and as a printed poster. Color management helps to achieve the same appearance on all of these devices, provided the devices are capable of delivering the needed color intensities. With photography, it is often critical that prints or online galleries appear how they were intended. Color management cannot guarantee identical color reproduction, as this is rarely possible, but it can at least give more control over any changes which may occur.
-Parts of this technology are implemented in the operating system (OS), helper libraries, the application, and devices. A cross-platform view of color management is the use of an ICC-compatible color management system. The International Color Consortium (ICC) is an industry consortium that has defined:
-An open standard for a Color Matching Module (CMM) at the OS level color profiles for:
--Devices, including devicelink-profiles that represent a complete color transformation from source device to target device
--Working spaces, the color spaces in which color data is meant to be manipulated. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_management
-CCD Chip- A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensors are a major technology used in digital imaging.
-In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. These MOS capacitors, the basic building blocks of a CCD, are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges.
-Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are widely used in professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required.
-In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors, also known as CMOS sensors (complementary MOS sensors), are generally used. However, the large quality advantage CCDs enjoyed early on has narrowed over time and since the late 2010s CMOS sensors are the dominant technology, having largely if not completely replaced CCD image sensors. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charge-coupled_de…
-Digital data storage is essentially the recording of digital information in a storage medium, usually by electronic means. The storage device typically enables a user to store large amounts of data in a relatively small physical space and makes sharing that information with others easy. The device may be capable of holding the data either temporarily or permanently.
-Digital data storage devices have many uses. For example, computers usually rely upon information storage to function. Storage media can also be used to back up important information (storing digital data can involve durability and reliability issues, so making independent copies of information is normally a sensible precaution). Some storage devices are also portable, meaning that they can be used to transfer information from one computer to another.
-Digital data storage media generally fall into one of five categories: magnetic storage devices, optical storage devices, flash memory devices, online/cloud storage, and paper storage.
-10 Digital Data Storage Devices for Computers
Hard Drive Disks
Compact Discs (CDs)
DVD and Blu-ray Discs
USB Flash Drives
Secure Digital Cards (SD Card)s
Solid-State Drives (SSDs)
-In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run, whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors.
Spot color classification has led to thousands of discrete colors being given unique names or numbers. There are several industry standards in the classification of spot color systems, such as:
Pantone, the dominant spot color printing system in the United States and Europe.
Toyo, a common spot color system in Japan.
DIC Color System Guide, another spot color system common in Japan, is based on Munsell color theory.
ANPA, a palette of 300 colors specified by the American Newspaper Publishers Association for spot color usage in newspapers.
GCMI, a standard for color used in package printing developed by the Glass Packaging Institute (formerly known as the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute, hence the abbreviation).
HKS is a color system which contains 120 spot colors and 3,250 tones for coated and uncoated paper. HKS is an abbreviation of three German color manufacturers: Hostmann-Steinberg Druckfarben, Kast + Ehinger Druckfarben and H. Schmincke & Co.
RAL is a color matching system used in Europe. The so-called RAL CLASSIC system is mainly used for varnish and powder coating.
Because each color system creates their own colors from scratch, spot colors from one system may be impossible to find within the library of another. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spot_color
-Printing is simply making a copy of text or images using a template. There is no single definition of production printing. That said, production printing is a step above a desktop printer or basic office copier. Production printing delivers higher-quality copies, larger print runs, and faster output.
-There are two types of production printing systems.
1. Monochrome production printing delivers high-quality black-and-white prints. It’s typically used for high-quantity print runs where costs can be lowered using the higher volume. Production printing delivers higher printing efficiency as well, with speeds as high as 250 pages per minute with minimal loss in quality. Companies often use monochrome production printing for user manuals, tests, text-based reports, and invoices. Scheduled print jobs, rather than quick-hit, one-off projects, are suited to monochrome production printing.
2. Color production printing delivers high-quality printed color materials. Color production systems typically offer sophisticated design and printing options, as well as the technology to reliably render a range of colors quickly. These systems are suited to smaller print runs to deliver targeted, high-quality content on demand. Businesses use color production printing for jobs like company reports, marketing collateral, booklets, photos, images, posters, and catalogs. These jobs often require exact color matching and printing accuracy, using Pantone colors, to reproduce the original template. www.dme.us.com/2018/11/27/printing-need…
-While there are many techniques for reproducing images in color, specific graphic processes and industrial equipment are used for mass reproduction of color images on paper. In this sense, color printing involves reproduction techniques suited for printing presses capable of thousands or millions of impressions for publishing newspapers and magazines, brochures, cards, posters and similar mass-market items.
-In this type of industrial or commercial printing, the technique used to print full-color images, such as color photographs, is referred to as four-color-process or process printing. Four inks are used: three secondary colors plus black. These ink colors are cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black); abbreviated as CMYK
-A method of full-color printing is six-color process printing like Pantone's Hexachrome system, adds orange and green to the traditional CMYK inks for a larger and more vibrant gamut, or color range. However, such alternate color systems still rely on color separation, half-toning and lithography to produce printed images. Six-color printing is widely used to increase the printability and so that to increase the production.
-An emerging method is extended gamut printing or 7 color printing, which adds three more colors such as green, orange and violet to extend the printability or gamut so that a wide range of Pantone colors also can be reproduced without changing the ink settings. This method is also called OGV printing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_printing
-Giclée (pronounced “zhee-clays”) printing is used to make prints of original artworks. Giclée is a French term meaning “to spray”…These large format inkjet printers use small spraying devices that can both match color and apply ink precisely, giving artists a high-quality print of their original art. The giclée printing process allows images to be printed on canvas, silk, and a wide variety of fine art papers. But, not all inkjet printers produce giclée prints. It all boils down to these four elements: resolution, ink, paper, and printer type.
-As far as ink and paper go, they must be high quality and “archival.” This is achieved by using archival pigment-based inks vs. dye-based, and printing on canvas, watercolor paper, or archival printing paper. Giclée printers are typically larger models able to hold up to 12 ink cartridges that produce a wider range of colors for duplicating artwork. www.artworkarchive.com/blog/everything-…
-A wire-frame model, also wireframe model, is a visual representation of a three-dimensional (3D) physical object used in 3D computer graphics. It is created by specifying each edge of the physical object where two mathematically continuous smooth surfaces meet, or by connecting an object's constituent vertices using (straight) lines or curves. The object is projected into screen space and rendered by drawing lines at the location of each edge. -The term "wire frame" comes from designers using metal wire to represent the three-dimensional shape of solid objects. 3D wire frame computer models allow for the construction and manipulation of solids and solid surfaces. 3D solid modeling efficiently draws higher quality representations of solids than conventional line drawing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire-frame_model
-The wire frame is then covered with a texture map, which contains the color and texture of the items. Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. The original technique was pioneered by Edwin Catmull in 1974.
-Texture mapping originally referred to diffuse mapping, a method that simply mapped pixels from a texture to a 3D surface ("wrapping" the image around the object). In recent decades, the advent of multi-pass rendering, multitexturing, mipmaps, and more complex mappings such as height mapping, bump mapping, normal mapping, displacement mapping, reflection mapping, specular mapping, occlusion mapping, and many other variations on the technique (controlled by a materials system) have made it possible to simulate near-photorealism in real time by vastly reducing the number of polygons and lighting calculations needed to construct a realistic and functional 3D scene. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_mapping
-Computer-generated imagery, CGI, is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, simulators, computer animation and VFX in films, television programs, shorts, commercials, and videos. The images may be dynamic or static, and may be two-dimensional (2D), although the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to the 3-D computer graphics used for creating characters, scenes and special effects in films and television, which is described as "CGI animation".
-The first feature film to make use of CGI was the 1973 movie Westworld. Other early films that incorporated CGI include Star Wars (1977), Tron (1982), The Last Starfighter (1984), Young Sherlock Holmes (1985), and Flight of the Navigator (1986).
-The first music video to use CGI was *Dire Straits' award-winning "Money for Nothing" *(1985), whose success was instrumental in giving the process mainstream exposure.
-The evolution of CGI led to the emergence of virtual cinematography in the 1990s, where the vision of the simulated camera is not constrained by the laws of physics. Availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds have allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional-grade films, games, and fine art from their home computers.
-The term virtual world refers to agent-based, interactive environments, which are now[when?] created with CGI. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-generate…
-A radiance map is an image that represents the true illuminance values of a scene. Radiance map reconstruction further contains two separate steps:
-1) recovering the response curves for the three color channels which map the pixel values to the log of exposure values, and
-2) mapping the observed pixel values and exposure times to radiance…The recovered response curves could then be used to compute the radiance map based on ln (radiance at the ith pixel) = g(ith pixel value in image j) - ln(exposure time of image j).
-NTSC is an abbreviation for National Television Standards Committee, named for the group that originally developed the black & white and subsequently color television system that is used in the United States, Japan and many other countries.
-The NTSC Color Space is an RGB color space that was introduced in 1953 by the FCC. The color space features a color gamut that is much wider than RGB. While this color space is not used in modern displays, it is commonly used to compare and specify color gamut coverage.
-The* NTSC Colors filter in Photoshop* is used to remove colors that are too saturated for broadcast. And Adobe Premiere Pro provides professional-quality color grading and color correction tools that allows for grade footage directly on the editing timeline.
-Color tools are available within a Lumetri Color workspace in Premiere Pro and permit color adjustment, contrast, and light in sequences. Move freely between editing and color grading without the need to export or launch a separate grading application. helpx.adobe.com/premiere-pro/using/colo…
OCTOBER 2021- Transart Intensive Session 11: Micro Residency New York City
"Pre-video" still from video in MoMA PS1's 5th Greater New York exhibition.
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 4 days between 28-31 Oct 2021
I attended the first 3 of the 4 day Transart's October 2021 SESSION 11.2 MICRO-RESIDENCY NEW YORK.
DAY 1- I was among several 1st and 2nd year TT/LJMU Postgraduate Researchers who, for the first time in-person, met at Bluestone Lane church, Thur 28 October 2021. From there we headed to the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum and took in Suzie Zuzek for Lilly Pulitzer: The Prints That Made the Fashion Brand www.cooperhewitt.org/channel/zuzek/
Underground Modernist: E. McKnight Kauffer
Nature by Design: Selections from the Permanent Collection, and Jon Gray of Ghetto Gastro Selects www.cooperhewitt.org/channel/jon-gray-o…
I spent Thursday afternoon with TT cohort members at the Elizabeth Foundation for the Arts. First was sat in on Designed Realities: A Table Talk With Fiona Raby dunneandraby.co.uk/content/projects.
Then we did two studio visits with radically different but equally impressive artists:
Jason File www.jasonfile.com/works, and
A Young Yu www.ayoung-yu.com/.
During a waiting period, Allison Geremia passed a hatful of art methodological terms. I drew a torn piece of paper with "Feminism" handwritten on it. Next she placed her LL Bean boot on the table and asked everyone to, from their drawn method, analyze it. I quickly researched "LL Bean hunting boots" and found that in 1911, “L.L.” returned from a hunting trip with cold, damp feet and a revolutionary idea. By combining leather uppers with rubber bottoms, he created an innovative boot that changed footwear forever.
I looked up the symbolism of the boot and found: the boot as a dominatrix prop; power and control in relationship to eroticism and dominance. And that lead to my reading about... One of the earliest descriptions of boots as a fetishistic object can be found in Émile Zola's 1868 novel 'Thérèse Raquin'. Actual boot fetishism is described in the diaries of 19th century British woman Hannah Cullwick, of which parts have been published. Hermine Hug-Hellmuth described boot fetishism scientifically in 1915. This article has also been published in English with comments by Arlene K. Richards in 1990, as Female fetishes and female perversions: Hermine Hug-Hellmuth's "A case of female foot or more properly boot fetishism" reconsidered.
...Boots are usually seen as a sign of empowerment for the wearer, especially when worn by women. This may be a reason for the connection to BDSM, where boots usually are seen as a statement of dominance. So-called boot worship became a common subcultural practice among sadomasochists and related fetishists in the early 20th century...
And maybe most fittingly for a feminist analysis of the LL Bean hunting boot...*Boot fetishism may be accompanied by a fetish for the material from which it is made, such as leather, rubber, or latex...Boot fetishism is a sexual fetish focused on boots... Boots are seen as perhaps the most fetishistic of all footwear and boots may be the most popular fetish clothing attire.
We ended the day with a Fusions and Disjunctions table talk with the stunning performance artist/figurative painter David Antonio Cruz www.cruzantoniodavid.com/.
DAY 2- On Friday several of us saw the MoMA PS1's 5th Greater New York survey of artists living and working in the New York City area...(Note: When I saw STROBE ON 3, image above, I thought it was the conceptual light installation...haha...only when I got to STROBE ON 2 did I realize that the piece was the upcoming strobe lights...being a migraine sufferer, I left before it began. See some installation pics of works I did see: www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/5352?…. And in the afternoon we took in Whitney Museum exhibitions, including their part of the 65 year Jasper Johns Mind/Mirror survey: whitney.org/exhibitions/jasper-johns, Labyrinth of Forms: Women and Abstraction, 1930–1950 whitney.org/exhibitions/labyrinth-of-fo…, Making Knowing: Craft in Art, 1950–2019 whitney.org/exhibitions/making-knowing, and Jennifer Packer: The Eye Is Not Satisfied With Seeing whitney.org/exhibitions/jennifer-packer
DAY 3- Saturday morning about seven of us took part in Stephen Kwok's Blocking event at the Swiss institute on St Mark's Place. www.newinc.org/year-8-members/stephen-k…. That afternoon, we participated in Awarness: A Somatic Movement Session with Luis lara Malvacias laramalvacias.org/HOME_1.html That evening, after Hyphenation, A talk WITH STEPHEN KWOK, at his Brooklyn studio, a handful of TT researchers presented on our own work. I spoke on my Pink Drishti paintings ginadominique.com/section/484362-2018-2… and accompanying Pink Universe installation ginadominique.com/home.html.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Transart Intensive Session 10: Methodologies
The Fitzpatrick Scale*
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 18 hours between 24, 25 & 26 September 2021
PART 1- Orientation- Critiquing the Critique w/ Jean Marie Casbarian
PART 2- Session 10- Research Studio for the Artist, A Workshop w/ Abbey Odunlami
PART 3- Session 10- Autoethnography, Personal & Political In Research Context, A Workshop w/ Elena Marchevska
The cumulative or overall effects of my digesting the required TT ORIENTATION Critiquing the Critique, and SESSION 10: METHODOLOGIES readings (videos and texts) and in-session discussions and exercises, especially viewing The Room of Silence, which I did first, and Hartman’s Venus in Two Acts, Holman Jones’ Creative Selves, Creative Cultures, Critical Auto-ethnography Performance and Pedagogy, and Baldwin’s Creative Process, I am for the first time in my life, feeling able to begin to articulate the beginnings of what I now might call my auto-ethnography.
An impulse to undertake this is has been vaguely floating in my mind over the past few years. What I am thinking about as a kind of self-redefinition or expanded self-understanding could potentially be summed up in a word that has been bobbing in and out of my thoughts during the past few months, which is liminality. I am thinking about how liminal pertains to my ethnic heritage.
Note: On the Fitzpatrick Scale* my skin tone is between a Type III, Medium White to Olive and a Type IV, Olive Moderate Brown. I think it's curious how there is no simply "olive" option. ??? LOL. Also reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Luschan%27s_c…
And its historical antecedent: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropometry
Seriously though, this maybe the most baffling simultaneously inspiring and curious history of chart making/data compiling I have run across in this new-to-me-this-year (2021) body of (personal/studio vs. teaching/academic) research. I intend to delve more deeply into it, both in my studio and here.
Side note: I had a similar self re-defining or self-clarifying experience immediately after giving birth to my daughter a few decades ago. Only then it was with my feminist self. That is the last time I was so immersed in such a personal and simultaneously academic self-re-definition. It changed my orientation not only to myself, but also how I live and perceive life, the world, history, etc. And maybe this self-expansion will not be as dramatic, but it might be.
A factor during these recent few years…something influencing or instigating some of this, is my learning about my scientific DNA composition…during early 2018. I grew up thinking of myself as predominantly Italian America, with some Greek (via my Italian immigrant maternal grandfather, who was named Domenico Filia…(through an uncle we learned that that Domenico had some Greek ancestry, which matches the Greek origins of his last name), and some Eastern European ancestry…that via one of my paternal great-grandmother Angeline Toman's immigration documents reveal along with stories about her that my grandmother told.
Also influencing this is the recent release of my writer brother Russell Shorto’s book, Smalltime, which is to a great extent about our paternal grandfather, and about his parents’ immigration to the US. Joe Heim of the Washington Post, Outlook, Review stated in his Feb. 12, 2021 column “… Shorto’s story is not just about his family. It’s also a social history of a place and time — industrial Pennsylvania from the early 20th century on — as it is being shaped by an influx of immigrants who are resented for their arrival, forced into the worst jobs and homes, and struggling to survive outside of an official America that makes their path harder at every opportunity.”
And, as mentioned in my reading log on The Room of Silence, hearing from others throughout my life how I appear “exotic” plus countless other similarly perplexing if not alienating comments (ex. Because of some of my physical features, to some I appear “blended”, and many have ask me if I am “mixed”, or “both”, or what ethnicity I am…then they proceed to guess.)
These kinds of life experiences, along with my 23&me DNA test results, which scientifically confirm that I do not qualify as what our still Euro-centric (or Anglo-centric) world considers white. As I have never been treated as fully white, I have never felt fully white. Nor I am considered by those with brown or black skin, who consider themselves “people of color” to be a “person of color.” My skin color is not “portrait pink” (paint color name), nor is it brown or black. It is sallow-y or olive-y… a typically Mediterranean skin color. Partly as a result of that, I have never self-described as a person of color either.
The DNA testing I mentioned indicates that scientifically, my composition is:
78.6% Southern European (= 60.7% Italian + 14.2% Greek & Balkan
+ 3.7% Broadly Southern European)
8.2% Eastern European
0.2% Ashkenazi Jewish
0.1% Broadly European
12.5% Western Asian/North African (= 3.9% Iranian Caucasian and Mesopotamian + 2.9% Cypriot + 3.4% Broadly Northwest Asian)
0.6% North African
0.4% Coptic Egyptian
1.3% Broadly Western Asian & North African
0.1% Trace Ancestry (Senegambian & Guinean)
While my ethnic and cultural upbringing…this part of my self-identity, is majority Italian American, (very little cultural deference was paid to my Eastern European immigrant great-grandmother's ethnicity or heritage), and much of this matches my DNA test results, yet there was/is a surprise-to-me scientific data showing 12.5% of my DNA is Western Asian/North African. This revelation is another contributing factor in my shifting, expanding self-awareness.
Though my Sicilian and Eastern European immigrant great-grandparents and my Italian immigrant grandfather were, I do not feel nor do I claim to be, an ethnic outlier. I may consider this new found state of “liminality”, not a marginalization, but a lever into an ethnically neutral zone. As an artist and as a human being, I regard most states of neutrality an advantage… so I am thinking that this is either neutralizing or potentially advantageous.
When I feel myself as neutral or liminal, as an in-between "ethnic" person, it allows me to also consider the possibility of myself as a gender-liminal person...as in my feminine/masculine energy balance is about 50-50. And while I do fully inhabit a cis female body, and gladly use she/her pronouns, on an energetic level, I am equally feminine/masculine. It allows me to exist in a gender- balanced or gender-neutral space. And I further consider myself in terms of my spirituality…as spirit, ruach (living breath). In this respect, are we not all identity-marker neutral? This is a kind of liminality too, right?
And while I have peripherally been thinking of some of these things, focusing on it, in the context of a sense of liminality, my in-between-ness, in my studio practice this coming semester or two, just in the course of reading these pieces, I consider focusing my painting on a kind of liminality, particularly in relationship to my ethnicity...and that within my larger proposed color project.
For providing the insight and inspiration through all of the very engaging, intellectually and emotionally stimulating material, I thank all of the TT faculty. I am grateful for how generous you all are.
*The Fitzpatrick Scale (also Fitzpatrick skin typing test; or Fitzpatrick phototyping scale) is a numerical classification schema for human skin color. It was developed in 1975 by American dermatologist Thomas B. Fitzpatrick as a way to estimate the response of different types of skin to ultraviolet (UV) light. It was initially developed on the basis of skin color to measure the correct dose of UVA for PUVA therapy, and when the initial testing based only on hair and eye colour resulted in too high UVA doses for some, it was altered to be based on the patient's reports of how their skin responds to the sun; it was also extended to a wider range of skin types. The Fitzpatrick scale remains a recognized tool for dermatological research into human skin pigmentation.
The following list shows the six categories of the Fitzpatrick scale in relation to the 36 categories of the older von Luschan scale (in parenthesis):
Type I (scores 0–6) always burns, never tans (palest; freckles)
Type II (scores 7–13) usually burns, tans minimally (light colored but darker than fair)
Type III (scores 14–20) sometimes mild burn, tans uniformly (golden honey or olive)
Type IV (scores 21–27) burns minimally, always tans well (moderate brown)
Type V (scores 28–34) very rarely burns, tans very easily (dark brown)
Type VI (scores 35–36) never burns (deeply pigmented dark brown to darkest brown)
Following a "Listen/Hear/Interview" writing exercise, I received this email from a fellow PhD candidate who had interviewed me during class.
Thank you for your generosity and open sharing. This is my gift to you on listening and hearing.
It was wonderful to notice that so many of your auditory memories relate to important men in your life, and how you have created space for music all around you. The tenderness of your father, and how your descriptions of his sounds opened other sensory memories of his smell. And of how he filled the house with music, an act which has continued with the men you have chosen to spend your life with. There is a beauty in seeing that continuation, and your joy in that.
It was an interesting shift with the talk about dreams, as the sounds became more wild and less welcoming with the sound of a rabid wolf, yet there is still something so lovely about the poetry of, "you're a healthy piece of fiction". I think of the holistic effect of stories, and the protection we can carve out for ourselves with our personal stories.
Thank you for sharing these insights.
In gratitude and solidarity,
In another of the in-class discussions and exercises, we received prompts and wrote. My response to one of the prompts:
All of A Piece
Though introvert-me is comfortable with and even enjoys aspects of the pandemic induced home-confinement, and meditator-me is grateful for time and space to sit in a “neutral” zone...to be with things like my primal fear... at the same time claustrophobe-me struggles with an on-going sense of anxiety over the loss of freedom to move about the world, which apparently I had taken for granted.
And since I desire to regain that sense of freedom, I am perplexed by the 30+ percent of the US population resisting any version of a CoVid vaccination. I try to comprehend what they are “thinking” or what they are reacting to, or against…? I also struggle with not judging that choice, because when I do think of it, I find myself judging it an unwise and selfish one.
Another bit of pandemic collateral damage was a move out of my creative community, which for years prior to CoVid, I had enjoyed with about 80 other New York City artists at Midtown Manhattan’s Elizabeth Foundation studios. At this moment, it occurs to me that this may have been one of the main catalysts for writing my Transart application/project earlier this year. That I was accepted and am becoming part of a fabulous new group of creatives, is surely the great big silver lining in that particular cloud.
Speaking of clouds, since my early childhood I have been learning about and anticipating that we were all going to be more responsible stewards of our earth and its resources...develop and use solar, wind and other viable, sustainable power sources. It mystifies me that most of the world, US included, is still not taking aggressive action to stop our deadly overuse of fossil fuels, on-going cultivation and over-consumption of live-stock, and other crisis producing practices.
OCTOBER 2021- Studio Praxis- Pandemic Painting at Woodstock Artist Assoc. & Museum Artist Talk
Gina Dominique, Pandemic Painting #18, cropped, Acrylic on Canvas, 24 x 18", 2020
On Tuesday, October 19, 2021 6-7:30 PM EST, I participated in WAAM Fall Artist Talks, speaking on my Pandemic Paintings, one pictured here, and currently exhibited at Woodstock Artists Association & Museum, 28 Tinker St, Woodstock, NY. It was a "High Flex" event, with people attending both online via zoom and masked onsite.
This month I also updated my website to include my two most recent bodies of work, completed during the last eight months of my 2019-2020 sabbatical. Click here to see my Tourbillion Paintings and Pandemic Paintings portfolios:
My October 2021 quick reads included:
(It's cool to the touch and it cools the surrounding air temperature!) "The whitest paint is here- and it's the coolest. Literally." www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2021/Q…
"Vantablack: It's blacker than black, but where is the world's darkest material being used?" www.abc.net.au/news/science/2017-01-13/…
And for both my PhD ChromaTheory topic, as well as my Relativity of Color class lectures, I researched, prepared and uploaded to my BlackBoard course site three additional online slide lectures.
Find the three new summaries of my October research/lecture notes posted immediately below. And with them, see just a couple of the of dozens of inspiring, informative topic-specific charts and images I also research, document and use. Also find August and two September research/lecture notes research notes posts earlier on this blog.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 3/11: Color Psychology
Francesco Clemente, 1952-, Ritz detail, watercolor on paper, 1983
- Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people. Colors can also enhance the effectiveness of placebos. For example, red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants. How color influences individuals may differ depending on age, gender, and culture. For instance, heterosexual men tend to report that red outfits enhance female attractiveness, while heterosexual females deny any outfit color impacting that of men. Although color associations can vary contextually between cultures, color preference is to be relatively uniform across gender and race. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology
- According to some evidence, humans started developing blue colorants 5,000 years ago. The semi-precious stone Lapis Lazuli, a deep-blue metamorphic rock, was highly prized among the Egyptians. - In the European and Western world, the concept of the color blue comes from the painted robes of the Virgin Mary. All of her attributes of honesty, truth, and goodness have been transformed into navy blue.
- During the Renaissance, this bright blue mineral was often combined with other ingredients, which led to development of the pigment Ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. Afterwards, blue dyes were spread throughout the world.
- The psychology of color blue is non-confrontational; it promotes peace and tranquility. Some of the descriptions for color blue include calmness and serenity. Blue is often described as peaceful, tranquil, and even orderly. This may be due to our perception of oceans as blue. For some people, blue can appear as a mentally soothing color.
- Surveys show that blue is the least appetizing color as well, which explains why some weight loss plans suggest eating food of a blue plate. It is found that blue lowers blood pressure, thus, slows down heart rate, because of which a body becomes relaxed.
- United Nations’ peacekeeping forces wear a light blue uniform. This color does not have the authority or militaristic connotations of navy blue.
- The "rose of temperaments" (Temperamenten-Rose) compiled by Goethe and Schiller in 1798/9. The diagram matches twelve colors to human occupations or their character traits, grouped in the four temperaments: * choleric (red/orange/yellow): tyrants, heroes, adventurers * sanguine (yellow/green/cyan) hedonists, lovers, poets * phlegmatic (cyan/blue/violet): public speakers, historians * melancholic (violet/magenta/red): philosophers, pedants, rulers.
- Wassily Kandinsky’s work seems to come alive with color, and a lot of this is due to his deep, detailed understanding of color’s meaning. Kandinsky viewed color in a synesthetic way. That is, he would associate certain colors with musical tones or even certain shapes.
- Kandinsky taught at the Bauhaus from 1922 until its closure in 1933, but his interest in color and its effects on people began long before that. Kandinsky’s 1910 book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, takes the reader through different colors and Kandinsky’s perceptions about them. About green, Kandinsky writes, “I could compare completely green with a calm, broaching, middle tones of a violin.” He connects the color white to a musical pause: “The white color affects our psyche as a great silence, which is for us absolutely. Internally, it sounds like a no-sound, which quite closely matches a pause in the music. This silence is not dead, it is full of possibilities.”
- The Bauhaus movement was set apart by its close examination of color (among other things), and Kandinsky’s teaching built upon Itten’s connection of color to mood and feeling. Kandinsky’s synesthetic view of color mirrored some of Paul Klee’s color theory, too.
- The "Land effect”, is the capacity to see full color (if muted) images solely by looking at a photo with red and gray wavelengths. The effect was discovered by Edwin H. Land, who was attempting to reconstruct James Clerk Maxwell's early experiments in full-colored images. Land realized that, even when there were no green or blue wavelengths present in an image, the visual system would still perceive them as green or blue by discounting the red illumination. Land described this effect in a 1959 article in Scientific American.
- In 1977, Land wrote another Scientific American article that formulated his "retinex theory" to explain the Land effect. The word "retinex" is a portmanteau formed from "retina" and "cortex", suggesting that both the eye and the brain are involved in the processing. Land, with John McCann, also developed a computer program designed to imitate the retinex processes taking place in human physiology. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_constancy
- The color green seems to make positive emotions stronger and negative emotions weaker. White and pink may have similar effects, but researchers are still studying those. Meanwhile, the color red seems to have the opposite effect and make negative emotions -- like those linked to failure and danger -- more intense. The color green can help get the creative juices flowing. Scientists compared it with white, gray, red, and blue, and green helped people do better with both word-based and picture-based activities. So if you’re looking for a new color for your office walls, think green.
- You may be happier and less tired after you exercise around the color green. It makes sense then that people who exercise outside, where there’s more green, feel better. And having more “green space” where you live tends to boost your mental health. |https://www.webmd.com/balance/ss/slideshow-colors-affect-you}|
- We recognize a product by its color, before we read its label. Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Marketers see color as important, as color can influence a consumers' emotions and perceptions about goods and services. Logos for companies are important, since the logos can attract more customers. This happens when customers believe the company logo matches the personality of the goods and services, such as the color pink heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. Colors are also important for window displays in stores. Research shows that colors such as red tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cool colors such as blue being more favorable. Red and yellow, as a combination, can stimulate hunger, which may help to explain, in part, the success of fast-food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, and In-N-Out Burger. The phenomenon has been referred to as the "ketchup & mustard" theory. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology
- Portia Munson’s works reflects the deep social conditioning regarding color preference that people undergo daily. From a young age, Munson has been collecting plastics from landfills, swap shops and yard sales to delineate them in a way that challenges what it means to be a woman and a citizen of planet Earth. Her work consistently explores the meaning of color, the destruction of nature and the definition of femininity through installations, mandalas and still life paintings.
- Munson says she works to make something ‘beautiful and disturbing” out of the items she finds and the way that she pieces and places these items together continuously touch on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals of Gender Equality, Responsible Consumption and Production and Climate Action.Using her lifetime collection of plastics and waste, Munson has been releasing and reforming her series the Pink Project, which was originally conceived in 1994 to redefine femininity through garbage.
-There was a renewed interest in the use of color for its expressive and emotional qualities in the 1980. The Neo-Expressionist movement in Italy was also known as the Italian Transavanguardia and one of its leading artists was Francesco Clemente.
-Similar to other Neo-Expressionists, Francesco Clemente’s work also contained much of a relation to sexuality, raw emotions, and even brutality. He depicts a dark side of humanity, usually unspoken and held back. In his paintings, Clemente incorporates some visual elements of Surrealism, as well as the signs and symbols of other cultures, such as Hindu spiritualism in India, or the Candomble religion of Brazil.
- Art critics throughout the 1980s claimed him to be the most articulate among other Neo-Expressionists. He was the one with the simplest technique and the most international references. Today, Clemente continues to explore individual identity, constantly questioning the idea of oneself. www.widewalls.ch/magazine/neo-expressio…
OCTOBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 4/11: Color Harmonies
- Every color has a related value, but no hue is as dark as black or as light as white.
Tints are the hue plus white.
Tones are the hue plus grey.
Shades are the hue plus black.
- Monochromic color is based on a single hue or color. Monochromatic palettes can be used for emotional impact. A red hue is still red whether the red is mixed with white or black. The three together, pink, red and red-black are an example of a monochromatic color palette.
- As a color is increasingly more saturated, it becomes brighter. As a color is increasingly less saturated, or as it is desaturated, it loses its color and becomes more of a gray or neutral color.
-Analogous colors are any three hues next to each other on the color wheel. For example: Red-violet, Red and Red-orange.
-Complementary colors are two hues exactly opposite each other on the color wheel. The use of complements intensifies the two hues and creates the figure-ground relationship. These are complementary color pairings:
Blue and Orange
Red and Green
Yellow and Violet
Blue-violet and orange-yellow
-Split Complementary Color Schemes have three colors, and two of them are located on either side of the first hues direct complement. For example, Blue, Red-Orange and Yellow-Orange is a split complementary color pairing.
-Double Split Complementary Color Schemes include four colors that are comprised of two sets of, typically side-by-side, complementary pairs. For example: Yellow, Yellow-Green, Violet, and Red-Violet is a split complementary color scheme.
-Neutrals a neutral color or shade, especially light gray or beige is achieved when a set of complements are mixed together. 20th C. artist Romare Bearden used neutrals to give a feeling of warmth to his painted collages like Early Morning.
-Triadic color schemes have three hues, all equal distance from one another on the color wheel. Yellow-Green, Blue-Violet and Red-Orange is one example of a triadic scheme. The three primaries, yellow, red and blue are the classic triadic scheme. To unify the pictorial elements in his paintings Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein often used a primary triadic color scheme...as he did in As I Opened Fire, 1964.
-Tetradic color schemes contain four hues are exactly equal distance from one another on the color wheel. Blue, Orange, Yellow-Green and Red-Orange is one of the tetradic schemes.
-The Bezold effect is an optical illusion, named after a German professor of meteorology, Wilhelm von Bezold (1837–1907), who discovered that a color may appear different depending on its relation to adjacent colors. It happens when small areas of color are interspersed.
-An assimilation effect called the von Bezold spreading effect, similar to spatial color mixing, is achieved.
-The opposite effect is observed when large areas of color are placed adjacent to each other, resulting in color contrast.
- The definition of simultaneous contrast: the tendency of a color to induce its opposite in hue, value and intensity upon an adjacent color and be mutually affected in return by the law of simultaneous contrast a light, dull red will make an adjacent dark, bright yellow seem darker, brighter and greener; in turn, the former will appear lighter, duller and bluer. www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/simu…
-Value Contrast refers to the amount of contrast between two areas of different value. It's the relationship between a light area and a dark area. There can be high contrast (a big difference between light and dark) and/or low contrast (not a big difference between the light and dark). One of the simplest ways to change the look of a color is to place it on a contrasting background. www.annamieka.com/blog/learning-about-v…
- Luminosity is a measure of how bright or dark a hue is. Physically, this is found in the amplitude and consequent energy of the electromagnetic waves of light. Luminosity is often measured as a percentage, ranging from zero (black) to 100% (full color). changingminds.org/explanations/percepti…
OCTOBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 5/11: Pigments, Colorants and Paints
Debu Barve Pigments, 2021
-Prehistoric artists worked in what must have been smoky conditions, using minerals as pigments for their images. Reds, yellows, and blacks were the predominant colours used. Red came from hematite, either raw or as found within red clay and ochre. Yellow was found in iron oxyhydroxides, and black either in charcoal or manganese oxides. The pigments could be prepared by grinding, mixing, or heating, after which they were transferred onto the cave walls. The earliest known pigments used were a limited natural color range. www.worldhistory.org/Lascaux_Cave/
-Ground pigments are the actual source of color in paints, colored pencils, and pastels. Tens of thousands of years ago, humans discovered that combining colored earth with a sticky liquid such as animal fats resulted in something that could be used to make a mark. These primitive paints were often made from colored rocks, earth, bone, and minerals, which could be ground into powders, and mixed with egg or animal byproducts to bind the solution and make paint.
- During Classical Greco-Roman, Early Christian and Gothic Eras, Western painters made their own paints by grinding pigment into oil.
-During the Early and Middle Modern era, paints were sold in pig bladders.
-By the Industrial Revolution, c. mid 1800s, the invention of the metal tube allowed for the commercial production and distribution of oil paints.
-Oil paint consists of small grains of pigment suspended in oil. Although it appears smooth to the naked eye, on a microscopic level, particles of pigment are suspended in oil, as fruit is suspended in a a set gelatin mold. www.webexhibits.org/pigments/intro/pain…
-The Fundamental Information on a Paint (Tube) Label includes:
--Common color name
--Names of the pigment(s) used.
--The color index names and number(s)
--The vehicle the pigment is suspended in (e.g. acrylic polymer emulsion for acrylic paint, or gum arabic for watercolor and gouache).
--Lightfastness or permanence rating
--Size of paint tube or container
-Paintbrushes come in many shapes, sizes, and bristle types—and all of these qualities can be either an aid or an impediment to an artist, depending on their desired results.
-Different types of brushes are used for different media. When it comes to bristles, artists can choose between animal hair (such as hog bristle, sable, and mongoose) or synthetic bristles.
-For oil and acrylic painters, long-handled easel paint brushes with soft bristles make smooth paint strokes. For blended, flat paint surfaces, sable, mongoose, or soft synthetic brushes are ideal. Long-bristled, soft brushes are excellent for making irregular, “hairy” marks at the end of a brushstroke.
-Long-handled easel paint brushes with coarser bristles are a good choice for creating rough effects or the thick impasto strokes. Hog bristle and stiff, springy synthetics are well-suited to heavy paint and will leave painterly tracks in the pigment.
-Flat brushes are versatile, while round brushes come in pointed and blunt tips. Filberts have long, tapered tongue-shaped bristles. The bright is a short-bristled, flat brush that’s ideal for short, controlled strokes. The fan brush is a splayed, flat brush with a round tip. And rigger brushes are thin rounds with very long bristles.
-Watercolorists use soft, short-handled brushes in many of the same shapes that oil and acrylic painters use, with two notable additions: the wash and the mop brushes.
-Masstone / Undertone
The masstone of a paint is simply its color when applied thickly enough to completely cover a surface. Ex. See top right. No other colors from below show through.
The undertone, by contrast, is visible when we spread the color very thinly over a white surface. Ex. See bottom right.
Certain colors, like Cadmiums and Cobalts, have similar masstones and undertones.
Transparent, organic colors like the Quinacridones and Phthalos, the undertone can be quite different from one another.
-Watercolor paint is made of a few simple ingredients, but the two main components are the pigment to provide the color, and the binder gum-arabic to provide the color vehichle.
-Watercolor paints also contain some other additives which alter the paint’s appearance, the way the paint performs, and to extend the shelf life of the product.
-There are over 100 natural or synthetic pigments used in artists watercolor paint. Some of the natural pigments are hard to acquire, which makes certain colors more expensive.
-Because gum arabic and synthetic binders tend to dry too quickly and become too hard, watercolor paint includes a moisturizer and a plasticizer. The type of moisturizer used is often glucose (for example corn syrup) or sometimes even honey!
-A small amount of brightener is sometimes added to watercolor paint. This is usually transparent or white crystals which enhance the color of the pigment, or adjust the lightness of the paint when dried.
-Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of pigment particles suspended in a linseed oil binder. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_paint
-Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment particles suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion and plasticizers, silicon oils, defoamers, stabilizers, or metal soaps. Most acrylic paints are water-based, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor, a gouache, or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media.
-Encaustic is a wax-based paint, composed of beeswax, resin and pigment* that during application, is kept molten on a heated palette. In order to fuse the paint to a surface, it is applied then reheated. The word ‘encaustic’ comes from the Greek word enkaiein, meaning to burn in, referring to this fusing process.
-And encaustic as versatile as any 21st century medium. It can be polished to a high gloss, carved, scraped, layered, collaged, dipped, cast, modeled, sculpted, textured, and combined with oil. It cools immediately, so that there is no drying time, yet it can always be reworked.
-Since the varnish is intrinsic to its formulation, encaustic paintings do not need additional varnishing or added protection. Beeswax is impervious to moisture, a major cause of paint deterioration. Wax resists moisture far more than resin varnish or oil.
-Types of Digital Printer Inks
- Two of the most common types of printers are laser printers and inkjet printers.
-Laser printers use powdered toner. Toner ”ink” is a dry powder composed of a large number of plastic particles. The toner is heated and applied to the printing surface with a drum.
-Inkjet printers use ink cartridges filled with tinted liquid ink and additives. Liquid Ink is made in both fugitive, dye-based and archival, pigment-based forms.
--Fugitive dye-based liquid inks are typically used in production printing.
--Archival pigment-based inks are used in fine-art Giclee printing.
-Solid ink, which has a waxy crayon-like consistency is used in some printers instead of liquid ink. Solid ink printers heat the ink and apply it to the printing surface, where it dries and cures.
-Ribbon Ink is most often used with dot matrix printers and thermal transfer printers. With impact and dot matrix printers, an ink-soaked ribbon is pressed against the page to print. With thermal transfer printers, the ribbon has a wax or resin coating that is melted by a heated print head to expose the ink and print it on the page.
-UV-ink is cured onto the printing surface in the presence of UV light. This type of ink dries very quickly, and it is among the most expensive.
-3D Printing ink is not actually ink, but is the 3D printing material. Materials that most 3D printers actually use is resin! While fairly pricey, 3D printing resin is available in a wide range of colors and various materials.
-Colored pencil leads contain a combination of pigments, binders, resins, and often wax. The best quality colored pencils have a higher concentration of pure pigment. (In graphite pencils, the “lead” is not real lead either, but graphite)
-A Crayon is an implement for drawing made from clay, chalk,
graphite, dry color, and wax.
-There are two types of crayons: the coloring crayon and the chalk crayon.
The coloring crayon, or wax crayon, is the one used by most children in making pictures, but artists also use it. It consists of waxes such as paraffin, beeswax, and carnauba wax and dry colour.
-Some synthetic wax-like materials are also used in the modern crayon. The waxes are melted and the dry colour added with continuous mixing until thoroughly dispersed.
-Fine art chalk crayons come in various formulations, Ex. conté crayon, lithographic crayon, pastels.
-Normally, with both chalk and wax based, the crayon is entirely consumed during the marking process through abrasion.
-Pastels are pigments mixed with a binder. It is a medium in the form of a stick or crayon, consisting of powdered pigments and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are similar to those used to produce some other colored visual arts media, like oil paint, except the binder is typically much drier.
-The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process. Pastels have been used by artists since the Renaissance and gained popularity in the 18th and 19th centuries.
-See Mary Cassatt’s At the Theater, left, and notice the juxtaposition of the use of complementary hues, which add to the atmospheric quality of light produced in her pastel drawing.
Powdered Kool-Aid ingredients:
CITRIC ACID, CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, MALTODEXTRIN, CONTAINS LESS THAN 2% OF ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C), NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, Contains Less than 2% of Artificial Flavor, Acesulfame Potassium (Sweetener), Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate, Red 40, colored dyes, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate (Preservatives)
-In his Untitled (Kool-Aid), 2003, conceptual artist David Hammons uses a staining technique to create a large-scale drawing with Kool-Aid. The soft drink has a very pale color and blends much the same as any water-based media. It’s not an archival medium, so along with it’s pop-culture status, and its ”consume-ability”, the fugitive nature of the work is also intrinsic or underlies its meaning.
-Color Film: daylight vs. tungsten
Films have different color spaces and are designed to work with a specific light source.
-Analog photographers used daylight-balanced film when they worked in daylight or with flash. Color film was designed for use in daylight or flash shows a distinct orange cast if used under tungsten lights.
Analog photographers used tungsten film when using studio or domestic tungsten lights. Tungsten film was designed to accurately represent colors as perceived by humans under tungsten light.
-The first color tattoos were Ancient Egyptian. Any tattoos prior were done in black. Based on artifacts and trinkets found from the Ancient eras, it is believed that Ancient Inuit and Ancient Romans also tattooed in color. The Inuit were especially fond of dark yellow tones.
-Color tattoos became fashionable in the 17th century Japan. Then tattooing stopped being thought of as a punishment and started to become seen as an art form. And color tattoos became fashionable in the USA and UK at the end of the 19th century. They only used very basic tattoo colors, as artworks show red, blue, yellow and greens were popular. The popularity of tattoo colors is connected to the advances to tattoo ink. www.savedtattoo.com/tattoo-colors/
-Tattoo inks may be made from titanium dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, iron oxides, ash, carbon black, and other ingredients. Today some of the pigments are industrial grade and used as automobile paint.
-Sand painting is the art of pouring coloured sands, and powdered pigments from minerals or crystals, or pigments from other natural or synthetic sources onto a surface to make a fixed or unfixed sand painting.
-Powdered pigments* come from such materials as pulverized cedar charcoal, red sandstone, white gypsum, yellow ocher, pollen, cornmeal, and crushed flower petals. These paintings average about six feet square, though they range in size from a foot to twenty feet or more in diameter.
-Unfixed sand paintings have a long established cultural history in numerous social groupings around the globe, and are often temporary, ritual paintings prepared for religious or healing ceremonies. This form of art is also referred to as drypainting.
-Drypainting is practiced by Native Americans in the Southwestern United States, by Tibetan and Buddhist monks, as well as Indigenous Australians, and also by Latin Americans on certain Christian holy days. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandpainting
-Ceramic glazes need to include a ceramic flux which functions by promoting partial liquefaction in the clay bodies and the other glaze materials. Fluxes lower the high melting point of the glass forms silica, and sometimes boron trioxide. These glass forms may be included in the glaze materials, or may be drawn from the clay beneath.
-Raw materials of ceramic glazes generally include silica, which will be the main glass former. Various metal oxides, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, act as flux and therefore lower the melting temperature. Alumina, often derived from clay, stiffens the molten glaze to prevent it from running off the piece. -Colorants, such as iron oxide, copper carbonate, or cobalt carbonate, and sometimes opacifiers like tin oxide or zirconium oxide, are used to modify the visual appearance of the fired glaze.
-To create his Architectural Vessel, Rick Foris used a combination of wheel throwing and slab construction. The surface’s metallic luster comes from a sprayed copper matt glaze was created by raku processes, which oxidize the clay and bring out unique colors.
OCTOBER 2021- Supervisory Meeting 1 Notes- Introductory
Gina Dominique, "ChromaTheory Painting, Image 7342 a", cropped, Dec 2021
Discussion notes (researcher)
Date: Friday 22 Oct, 2021
Time: 4:00 PM EST
Subject: Introductory Supervisory Committee Meeting
Professor Mark Roughly (LJMU Supervisory Lead)
Gina Dominique Hersey (Researcher)
Robyn Ferrell (Transart Supervisor 1)
Borinquen Gallo. (Transart Supervisor 2)
Via Zoom, at approximately 4:03 PM EST, Professor Mark Roughley called to order PGR Gina Dominique's Introductory Supervisory Committee meeting.
Beginning with Professor Roughley, then Professors Ferrell and Gallo, each committee advisor introduced themselves and spoke briefly about their academic work, as well as their professional practices. And I introduced myself, briefly discussing my proposed PhD project. Through zoom's chat feature, I shared with committee members a url/link to my website,
I discussed my required PhD Process blog and its contents. I stated that I post a "unique" image distinguishes to begin each unique post. For my own records, and my Advisors assistance, I am making
-Monthly studio practice entries
-Monthly research logs/lecture note entries
-Monthly Transart intensive required Reading Log entries.
Next Mark Roughley reviewed the
www.ljmu.ak.uk site, focusing on where to find:
2. "Canvas" features...Professor Roughley demonstrated some, making note that we are each required to enroll in and complete the Ethics Module.
3. "eDoc" features; "Doctoral Academy", "Project Approval", and "Project Dates"...
(Professor Roughley explained that each of the four of us will document each committee meeting that we attend. There are to be 10 total meetings annually, at least during my first year. And that we are on a 10-month academic calendar. (August is TT break, mid-December thru mid-Jan is LJMU break month). He re-stated that each member attending each meeting, regardless of how many of us are in attendance...2, 3 or all 4, are to document meetings attended.)
4. "LJMU email"- Activate this account immediately, and check it weekly.
We all discussed that only Professor Roughley attended the live mandatory LJMU Induction Ceremony this past week.
Because the other three of us received an email notification with zoom link post-facto.
Once we do receive the recorded version via email and link, we agreed to watch it and document that we did so. (Professor Roughley noted that it contains more in-depth ljmu.ak.uk app instructions.)
Just prior to adjournment, we four agreed the next Advisory Committee meeting will take place at 4:00 PM, EST, Friday 12 November 2021.
Supervisor discussion notes
Agreed action points (to be completed after the meeting)
1. Make sure my LJMU email account is set up, active and this week, I am to begin checking my emails at least 1x per week.
2. I am to log into eDoc to:
a) Add these supervision meeting notes
b) To upload my PhD project title, which is currently missing, I am to start a new "change request" form.
3. Log onto Canvas, enroll in and complete the Ethics Module.
4. Once link to Induction Ceremony is provided, I am to watch it.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Transart Intensive Orientation
Gina Dominique, Blue Serpentine Line detail, watercolor on paper, 8.5 x 11", 2021
REFLECTIVE NOTES: 3.5 hours total on 24 Sep 2021
PART I- WITH THE BODY-A Preparatory Movement Practice for Artists with Kate Hilliard
My September 2021 studio work involved making several watercolor studies during the Transart orientation Orientation- WITH THE BODY-A PREPARATORY MOVEMENT PRACTICE FOR ARTISTS WITH KATE HILLIARD, including the above posted sketch.
And my studio research revolved around my PhD ChromaTheory topic, as well as preparing and posting to my Bb course site two online slide lectures for my Relativity of Color course.
Sketches are from "Using-Materials-of-Your-Choosing-Make-and-Repeat-for-2-minutes-A-Single-Gesture" exercise, and include four different pages of "Red Lines", one "Blue Serpentine Line", one "Window with Trees", and one "Page of Red Daubs", all watercolor on paper, 8.5 x 11", 2021
PART II- Critiquing the Critique with Jean Marie Casbarian
As I watched the video "The Room of Silence" in preparation for the session, I thought of most of my students...I teach a majority Hispanic student population. And I thought of my own CUNY ethnic status, which is a listed “protected” class. I am a 2nd generation Italian American. Two of my maternal great-grandparents and one maternal grandfather were late 19th C.- early 20th C. Italian immigrants. And two of my paternal great-grandparents were early 20th C. Sicilian immigrants.
So watching, listening to, and hearing The Room of Silence students of color and mixed ethnicities speak on their classroom and life experiences not only gave me empathy for my own students, but it also caused me to re-visit my own ethnic heritage.
Some of what has been brewing in me at some level all of my life, but of late on a more conscious level surfaced while listening to one specific student’s comment re: people referring to her as “exotic”. Her recounting sent off in my mind a repeating memory "bell". Like the student who recounted it, I also did not experienced it as a complement… but nor have I exactly heard is as an intended slight. It simply stuns me.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 2/11: The History of Color Theory
- Every culture has its own concept of color and color usage.
- Because color is understood to be part of a spectral continuum, most color theories are visually demonstrated on a circular or infinite format as either as a circle, wheel, or sphere.
-Often the models are based on a tri-chromatic color scheme that include three primary colors, three secondary colors, and six intermediate or tertiary colors, for a total of 12 main divisions. Some versions include 24 or more hues.
-There are many various versions of color wheels, each based on different color relationships, including additive, subtractive, process, and pigment oriented.
- Because Aristotle may be the first person to write a known book about color in his DeColoribus, he is considered the grandfather of color theory. He wrote that all colors were derived from different mixtures of elements in the natural world, specifically colors were a combination of sunlight, firelight, air, and/or water. His basic color palette included red, yellow, blue, green, violet, white, black, and brown.
- Italian Renaissance artist, scientist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci wrote another historically important color theory text that was published after his death in 1651. In his Treatise on Painting da Vinci proposed a palette based on physical manifestations of the natural world. Unlike Aristotle’s estimations of natural color though, each of da Vinci’s proposed six fundamental hues related specifically and directly to a natural element. For example, black related to night or darkness, blue to air, green to water, red to fire, yellow to earth, and white to light. He was also devoutly spiritual and regarded the natural world as a manifestation of spiritual reality.
- Isaac Newton is considered the father of modern color theory. He was the first to base his color observations on modern scientific investigative methods. In his 1701 book, Opticks, he documented his experiments with the diffraction of light through a prism, which is how he devised his color spectral range. He realized that the prism broke down, then bent white light to show the seven hues that make up the ROY G BIV color spectrum…red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
- In 1703 J. C. LeBlon developed the theory of three primary colors- red, yellow and blue. His premise was that these three colors were the purest, meaning they could not be broken down further, whereas all other hues could be made using some combination of them. LeBlon also developed the four primary color scheme used in printing, CMYK-cyan, magenta, yellow and black, which we still use in printing today.
- Poet Johann W. von Goethe was disappointed by Newton’s scientific methods, so rather than focusing on what happened with light, he zeroed in on what the eye perceives and visual phenomena. In 1810 he wrote Theory of Colors, which brings order to the world by organizing color. Goethe’s 1810 color wheel is like %Moses Harris’ 1766 color wheel from his book The Natural System of Color with colors equally spaced.
- Goethe’s additionally illustrates the relationship of the primary and secondary hues to their corresponding complementary pairs, which he called reciprocally evoked colors and placed opposite one another on the color wheel.
- Goethe observed light and shadow and realized that shadows are not purely black or gray, but also contain complementary colors. His writings influenced the Impressionists and Post Impressionists, especially Van Gogh. Van Gogh read Goethe’s color theory and used it in many paintings.
- French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul developed the basic concepts of hue (color), purity (saturation), and value (luminosity) below.
- Ogden Rood, late 19th C. artist-scientist and contemporary of Chevreul’s, wrote Modern Chromatics. In it he outlined his theory of visual color mixing, which states that when two or more colors are placed side-by-side our eyes optically perceive the colors as blended. French pointillists, who thought of themselves as Divisionists, employed Rood’s visual color mixing theory.
- In his Divisionist methods, French Post Impressionist painter Georges Seurat practiced the chemist Chevreul’s ideas about color harmonies, and artist/scientist Rood’s visual color mixing theory. (Because he disapproved of the interpretation and application, Rood was apparently deeply upset.)
- 20th C. Swiss born artist-designer, color theorist and Bauhaus Design Professor Johannes Itten published a book The Art of Color, which describes his ideas as a furthering of his teacher Adolf Hölzel's color wheel.
-Itten developed a color sphere, and its flattened-out or ”mapped” version, which he called a 12-hued color star. Expanding out form the white center of it are various tints (color + added white) of the many hues leading to the points of the star where the purest most intense form of the hue ("pure" color...no added white, gray or black) is placed.
- His studies of color palettes and color interaction directly influenced his student Joseph Albers and op artists of the 1960’s Op Art movement, as well as other Western abstract color-based movements.
- Albers continued Itten's formal color investigations of how colors interact with one another. He studied optical illusions of color, making one color appear like two different colors, depending on which color ground it was placed. His format was always the same, rectangles or squares within squares; only the hues change. He also found that two different hues could be made to look the same, depending on which color ground they were place. In these works, to the exclusion of all else, formal color study is the subject. During the decades of the mid 20th C., Albers taught at Yale and had a tremendous influence on a group of artists who became known as the Minimalists. Minimalists Sol Lewit and Donald Judd were among his most renown 20th students.
- *Albert H. Munsell, considered the father of modern color classification, built upon Ogden Rood’s concept of color attributes, assigned a numerical notation system to the elements so that hues and their variations could be organized and classified, and created the first three-dimensional color wheel.
- The CIE color chart concept is based on the additive process RGB, or red, green and blue primaries. These values also related to the short, medium and long wavelengths of the human eye’s cones or color receptors. It was developed for the computer industry by the CIE, and is the basis for digital color systems*.
-Like the United Nations of light and color, the Commission International D’Eclairage, or CIE is an international non-profit organization focused on technical, scientific, and cultural applications of light and color. Its membership is voluntary. The CIE was formed in 1931 to develop a precise, device-independent color model or color matching system for use in both scientific and artistic applications. It’s design is based on mathematical algorithms and mechanics as opposed to the earlier color matching systems that were based on subjective visual identification.
- To define the fear of color and the use of color David Batchelor, a pioneer of contemporary color theory, coined the term chromophobia. It is also the title of one of his books.
- Batchelor argues that in the 1950s Abstract Expressionist painters departed from the mixing color on a palette and moved to pre-manufactured paint color selections, which were available in cans, and that it marks what he borrows from Duchamp, the notion of their use of a ”ready-made” color selection process.
-This move away from traditional color palette mixing, coincides with artists move away from the practical use of color theory, and from the use of color circles. Instead he argues that artists use manufactured color charts to select their palettes.
-He makes the case that this was the precursor to contemporary artists use of digital color selection…color selection via computer. This ultimately eliminated the brushwork or artists “hand”.
- Color forecasting is another form of color theorizing, not for classification and categorization but for purely aesthetic use by designers and artists. CAUS (The Color Association United States) may be one of the oldest color-forecasting services. Others include the Color Council and Trend Union.
Color Theory Time Line
...adapted from Steven Bleicher's
350 BCE - Aristotle- DeColorbus (The first book on color theory)
1500 - da Vinci- Treatise on Painting (published posthumously in 1651)
1703 - Newton - Opticks published
1703 - LeBlon - Develops concept of primary hues
1766 - Harris - Natural System of Color published
1818 - Goethe - Theory of Color published
1855 - Chevreul - The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors, and Their Applications to the Arts published
1879 - Rood - Modern Chromatics published
1905 - Munsell - Color Notations published. Three Dimensional color wheel developed.
1916-18 - Ostwald - Color Science, The Color Primer and also The Color Atlas published
1920 - Itten - The Art of Color published (and Color Star developed)
1931 - CIE - the Commission International D'Eclairage develops chromaticity chart based on wavelengths not actual color.
1963 - Albers - Interaction of Color published
2000- Batchelor - Chromophobia published
AUGUST 2021- Studio Praxis- Pink Drishti paintings exhibited in New York's "Upstate Art Weekend" at the Poetry Barn
Gina Dominique Concentric Pink Squares 1 cropped, acrylic and pencil on linen, 12 x 12", 2019
To prepare for the Fall 2021 semester, I spent much of the spring researching texts, and much of the summer writing a new-for-me "Relativity of Color" course. I just launched it this past week. After scanning dozens of texts, purchasing and looking more closely at about thirty, and narrowing my options for the required student text to three, I finally landed on Steven Bleicher's Contemporary Color Theory & Use. It's an inclusive examination of the topic, and ultimately inspired me to write a dozen what I think are exciting, relevant to the 21st C. Color Assignments.
The course will be delivered online asynchronously, so I've spent a good deal of time building the Bb course site, and am still in process researching to add to relevant visual slide lectures. (See Research/Lecture Notes on Color Perception (August 2021) to follow).
I've simultaneously been preparing to teach an Introduction to Painting course, as well as four BFA Thesis students. During the past days, I've met all 40 of my Fall 2021 students, and as the semester unfolds, we will establish our rhythms.
Soon I will shift my focus to reading for my own Thesis work. "The Affect Theory Reader" edited by Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth, and "The Real Desire" by Robyn Ferrell sit beside me. Ferrell will be one of my 2-3 PhD Committee Advisors, so I especially look forward to this read.
Meanwhile, last weekend I participated in New York's "Upstate Art Weekend" at the Poetry Barn with six of my Pink Drishti paintings. See ginadominique.com/section/484362-2018-2… them here in the context of the portfolio. And earlier this summer I had eight new "Pandemic Paintings" at Firebox Art Studios LLC "Renewal" exhibition. I look forward to a beginning a new body of color-based work.
AUGUST 2021- Thesis Research- "Contemporary Color" Notes 1/11- Color Perception
Illustration of how an incident beam illuminates an object, a leaf for example, which absorbs much of the incident beam's light and reflects back the light wave/s that it cannot absorb, called a reflective beam. Here it is the the green light wave or reflective beam that we see when we are perceive a leaf as green.
- During the 17th Century, Newton used a 3-dimensional prism to learn that white light contains the colors of the visible light spectrum. He showed how a prism refracts or bends the light shining through it to reveal seven hues: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet… also known as ROY G BIV.
- The reason we see a particular color is two-fold. One reason is due to what we call an incident beam or source light that directly hits objects, thus illuminating it. And the other is due to the reflected beam, which bounces back off of the lit objects. (See illustration of this phenomenon above.)
- The phenomenon of how the color of an object changes as the quality and type of light changes is known as metamerism.
- Using photoreceptors, the optic nerve, at the back of the eye, is responsible to transmit the light impulses to the brain. Photoreceptors are comprised of rods and cones. Rods see or perceive value or varying degrees of light and dark, and cones see or perceive color.
- The Ishihara Color Test is used to determine if someone has a color insufficiency.
- Synesthesia is another way of perceiving the world. David Hockney used the concept of Synesthesia in his painting Ravel’s Garden with Night Glow from L’Enfant et les Sortileges, 1980.
- Some people perceive all things, animate and even inanimate objects, with their auras. Auras are the electromagnetic fields that are made up of the same energy as light waves.
- Color can be used as a form of healing therapy, which is called chromotherapy.
JULY 2021- PhD Project Proposal- Acceptance into Liverpool John Moores University's Transart Institute Practice Based PhD program
I am pleased to write that Transart Institute at Liverpool John Moores University accepted my application to begin a practice based PhD. This fall I will begin studies in New York City and remotely.
To complete it, I will do relevant readings, research, write, paint, construct installations with visual and sound elements; participate in peer critiques, a peer research group, and online advisory committee meetings; write a forty thousand word thesis; arrange and mount a 2024 final solo thesis exhibition; attend monthly 2 day intensives and three annual in-person residencies (in NYC during October 2021, October 2022, and October 2023, in Berlin during July 2022, July 2023, and July 2024, and in Liverpool during July 2022, July 2023, and July 2024); and maintain this creative research journal.
Here I will post images of my studio work in process (paintings and installations), exhibition announcements, supervisory committee meeting notes, and scholarly research notes starting with a look into my:
PROPOSED RESEARCH TOPIC OVERVIEW:
Towards a more inclusive 21st Century color theory, I propose to create new bodies of work (both written and visual, i.e., paintings/installations w/visuals and sound elements) based on my research of published historical color theories. I will explore blind spots in the history of color theories and add to what I imagine becomes an intersectional 21st century color theory.
I aim to participate in updating color theory so that it is more ecologically sound, formally astute, iconographically or symbolically described, feminist-based and/or gender inclusive, global or culturally sensitive, socio-economically savvy, biographically and autobiographically aware, linguistically and deconstructively open, and psychoanalytically considered.
Throughout the course of my research and writing I will examine color in advertising, color in art and the art of color mixing, color in art history, color and culture, color in design (textile, digital, fashion, and industrial design), color and gender, color and psychology, color and race, color and sexuality.
ChromaTheory- On Abstract Painting, Color and Otherness
The contextual and literary review of my work includes the history of color theories, color psychology, and how artists and art writers use color to discuss its relationship to culture, gender, race and other identity markers. For example, artists such as Tomashi Jackson, whose work deals with the connection between the linguistics of color theory and racialized America focus on color are relevant. In her Hyperallergic article “The Linguistic Overlap of Color Theory and Racism”, dated December 14, 2016, Risa Puleo writes on how Tomashi Jackson found her studies of Josef Albers’ color language was used to describe color perception, which mirrored the language of racialized segregation. That inspired Jackson to use color perception as an aesthetic strategy for investigating the history of America’s mid-late twentieth century school desegregation and ultimately to the contemporary re-segregation of public space. She creates large-scale abstract mixed media works that connect past, present, formalism, intuition, color theory, and human rights legislation.” hyperallergic.com/345021/the-linguistic…
And works by Becca Albee, who in her aperture “Full Color Feminism” interview with Annika Klein regarding Albee’s photographs and installation art says of her Radical Feminist Therapy: Working in the Context of Violence series that she researched different lifestyle-oriented and types of color-related therapies are also pertinent. Albee considers gender constructs surrounding the marketing of color and its relationship to capitalism. She says she found a style of color therapy called Aura-Soma that requires clients to go to a specialist who presents them with lots of bottles filled with different color liquids on a lighted grid. From them, the client picks the three or four bottles they are most attracted to. Albee states that because of the perfume bottles and the selection of colors in them indicates that it is specifically marketed to women. She also mentions that the session experience is like having a Tarot card reading, and that one is meant to buy their favorite bottles of color as “color therapy for the soul.” As a result of this research, and on more related color therapies, Albee made “photographs in the most desirable way possible because (she) wanted the work to exist within this paradox around color: you can be circumscribed and exhilarated by it; limited and animated by it.”
Writings by contemporary feminist-based post-colonialist art historian Griselda Pollock's writing, ex. “Avant-Garde Gambits 1888-1893: Gender and the Color of Art History” also contextualize my project interests. In this specific writing Pollock challenges art history's typical interpretation of various 17th-20th C. Western artists’ search of “the other” in far-away lands by arguing that these artists were cultural colonizers. She proposes that one of Gauguin’s paintings of his Tahitian wife… “refers and defers to Manet's Olympia (1863), a notorious avant-garde image of prostitution in the modern city. Where it was seen to differ was in the color of the nude: critics named it a "brown Olympia." Pollock’s careful deconstruction allows her to explore the ways in which racist discourse structures art and art history, posing questions of cultural, sexual and ethnic difference in order to make us all self-critical, not only in regard to the gender, but also to the color of art history.”
For more context, sociologists Angela R. Dixon and Edward E. Telles writing Skin Color and Colorism: Global Research, Concepts, and Measurement in Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 43, 2017, where they examine interdisciplinary global writings concerning skin color and colorism. They maintain that both are related to one's socio-economic status within a culture, as well as the culture's standing in the world. A focus is on Western societies, especially Latin America, where color and colorism are closely related to race and racism. And in Asia, where color and colorism have evolved separately from newer concepts of race and racism. Also noted is the fact that color consciousness and white supremacy increasingly appear to be united, globalized, and commodified, evidenced in the global multibillion-dollar skin-lightening industry. Finally, Dixon and Telles document the growing methodological attention to measurements of skin color and social science data that incorporate skin color measures.
Albers, Josef. Interaction of Color: New Complete Edition. Yale University Press in Association with the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, 2009.
Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: the Invention of Color. Vintage Books, 2009.
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color: THEORY &; USE. Second ed., Delmar Cengage Learning, 2012.
Campbell, Tori. “Installation Art: Top 10 Artists Who Pushed the Genre to Its Limit.” ARTLAND, magazine.artland.com/installation-art-t…
Coleman, Arica. “What's Intersectionality? Let These Scholars Explain the Theory and Its History.” Time.com, 28 Mar. 2019, time.com/5560575/intersectionality-theo…
Color Theory Chart, pixelsham, Color, Design, 24 Aug. 2019, www.pixelsham.com/2012/08/27/color-theo…
Dickey, Tina. Color Creates Light: Studies with Hans Hofmann. Trillistar Books, 2011.
Eaverly, Mary Ann. Tan Men/Pale Women: Color and Gender in Archaic Greece and Egypt, a Comparative Approach. The University of Michigan Press, 2013.
Edwards, Betty. Color: a Course in Mastering the Art of Mixing Colors. Tarcher/Penguin, 2004.
Fider, Nicole A, and Natalia L Komarova. “Differences in Color Categorization Manifested by Males and Females: a Quantitative World Color Survey Study.” Humanities; Social Science Communications, 2019, www.researchgate.net/publication/337200…
Finlay, Victoria. THE BRILLIANT HISTORY of Color in Art. Getty Museum, 2014.
Ford Shallbetter, Janet L. “Color Theory: Overview.” Color Theory Tutorial, Concepts, Essays and Color Basics, Creative Commons, 2013, worqx.com/color/index.htm
Gage, John. Color And Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction. University of California Press, 1993.
Gillman, Susan Kay, and Alys Eve Weinbaum. Next to the Color Line: Gender, Sexuality, and W.E.B. Du Bois. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. THEORY OF COLORS . Translated by Charles Lock Eastlake, M.I.T. Press, 1970.
Gottschalk, H. B. “The De Coloribus and Its Author.” Hermes, vol. 92, no. 1, 1964, pp. 59–85. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4475288. Accessed 19 July 2021.
Gregg, Melissa, and Gregory J. Seigworth. THE AFFECT THEORY READER. Duke University Press, 2010.
Hamilton, Ann. “Indigo Blue.” Ann Hamilton Studio, Spelito Festival 1991 / SFMoma 2007, 2021, www.annhamiltonstudio.com/projects/indi…
Hornung, David. 1. Beginning Color Studies Pp. 40-41. Vimeo/Beginning Color Studies: Painting Swatches, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957782.
Hornung, David. 2. Color Harmony: Unifying Mixing Strategies. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957862.
Hornung, David. 3. Applying Color Principles: Illusion of Transparency. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 18 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957918.
Hornung, David. 4. Color Research: Color Inventories. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957975.
Hornung, David. Color: a Workshop for Artists & Designers. Third ed., Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 2021.
Itten, Johannes, and Ernst van Haagen. The Art of Color the Subjective Experience and Objective Rationale of Color. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1961.
Itten, Johannes, and Faber Birren. The Elements of Color: a Treatise on the Color System of J. Itten, Based on His Book the Art of Color. Edited and with a Foreword and Evaluation by F. Birren. Transl.by Ernst Van Hagen. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970.
Itten, Johannes. The Color Star. John Wiley & Son, 1986.
Klein , Annika. “Full Color Feminism.” Aperture, 2 Sept. 2020, aperture.org/editorial/becca-albee-femi…
Lewis, Josie. The New Color Mixing Companion: Explore and Create Fresh and Vibrant Color Palettes with Paint, Collage, and Mixed Media. Quarry Books, an Imprint of The Quarto Group, 2019.
Long Now Foundation. Adam Rogers | Full Spectrum: The Science of Color and Modern Human Perception. YouTube, YouTube, 18 May 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7M2Dm1tE0U
Mollica, Patti. Color Theory: An Essential Guide to Color- from Basic Principles to Practical Applications. Walter Foster, 2013.
Newton, Isaac. Opticks or, a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light. The Third Edition, Corrected. By Sir Isaac Newton, Knt. Printed for William and John Innys, 1721.
Noyes Vanderpoel, Emily. Color Problems: a Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color. The Circadian Press, 1901.
Odita, Odili Donald. “The Essential Color Theory Artist You May Never Have Heard Of.” The Art of Education University, 4 May 2021, theartofeducation.edu/2021/05/26/the-es…
Pollock, Griselda. Avant-Garde Gambits 1888-1893: Gender and the Colour of Art History. Thames and Hudson, 1992.
Pollock, Griselda. Vision and Difference: Feminism, Femininity and Histories of Art. Routledge, 2015.
'Pro'Sobopha, Mgcineni. “The Body: Gender and the Politics of Representation.” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, vol. 63, 2005, pp. 117–130., www.jstor.org/stable/4066640
Puleo, Risa. The Linguistic Overlap of Color Theory and Racism. 15 Dec. 2016, hyperallergic.com/345021/the-linguistic…
Rea, Naomi. “Portia Munson Talks Color and Empowerment at Frieze.” Artnet News, Artnet News, 7 Oct. 2016, news.artnet.com/art-world/portia-munson…
Rogers, Adam. FULL SPECTRUM: HOW THE SCIENCE OF COLOR MADE US MODERN. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2021.
Rost, Lisa Charlotte. “An Alternative to Pink & Blue: Colors for Gender Data.” Datawrapper Blog, 8 Feb. 2021, blog.datawrapper.de/gendercolor/
Sidaway, Ian. Colour Mixing Bible: a Complete Guide for the Practising Artist in All Media. David & Charles, 2002.
Stewart, Jude. ROY G. BIV: An Exceedingly Surprising Book About Color. BLOOMSBURY, 2013.
Syme, P. WERNER'S NOMENCLATURE OF COLOURS: ADAPTED TO ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, CHEMISTRY, MINEROLOGY, ANATOMY... AND. Second ed., Natural History Museum, London, 2018.
Temkin, Ann. COLOR CHART: Reinventing Color, 1950 to Today. Museum of Modern Art, 2008.
Vanderpoel, Emily Noyes. Color Problems: a Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color. Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903.
Willard, Christopher. “A Dystopia of Color Education.” Research, 1998, www.colormatters.com/73-color-resources…
Wurmfeld, Sanford, et al. Color Documents: a Presentational Theory: Plates from Treatises Published 18th Century to the Present: 15 April - 7 June 1985, Hunter College Art Gallery, New York City. Hunter College Art Gallery, 1985.
Wurmfeld, Sanford. Color Seminar. Minus Space, 2019.
Zuffi, Stefano. Color In Art. Abrams, 2012.