NOVEMBER 2021- Reading Log 5/5- Session 12: Formed in entanglement: KNOWING, WRITING, PUBLISHING, A WORK GROUP With Marc Herbst
Marc Herbst, Drawing (cropped)
During my reading of The Journal of Aesthetics & Protest, Issue 11, I highlighted what I think are the most relevant and interesting aspects of the 2019 call for (creative) newsletter-as-cultural-artifact submissions:
Corona, Fascism, Climate Break-Down. Headlines all, and very real crises felt everywhere– things whose concerns work over situations at every scale of possible experience.
...This issue’s aim was to facilitate such work in intimate places, to do so, this issue serves primarily as a compilation of autonomously produced and locally distributed newsletters aimed at situating non-fascist thought and/or avant garde culture… it reflects our understanding that despite serious critical and creative work occurring from the center to the far left, liberatory and cosmopolitically open enlivening politics are not advancing.
...Overall, our submission call demonstrates how the issue has two theoretical anchors, new municipalist, small “d” democratic praxis and de-colonial thinking... All we asked was that contributions be; 1) collectively edited to make sure each project was more than one person’s ambition 2) locally distributed in hopes that a situation would drive content beside whatever ambition 3) and oriented along avant-garde or anti-fascist ends…
...This issue explores the concept of "culture beside itself"…What we mean by "Culture beside itself”. We see a contradiction in the utilization of the word "culture"…At the embrace of this contradiction is the situation of "culture beside itself."
Newsletters, as cultural and political expression
...If "cultural" things are comprehended as unique objects- singular paintings, dances, books, newsletter- then we wonder how those unique expressions exist as if they had the autonomy that Western thought gives to individual (male, white) humans. We wanted to listen to printed words as though they might vary or fluctuate as though they had thier own (own) being.
On Newsletters in site and place
...if the practice of concerted and conscious cultural work is to be taken seriously, it insists that considered work does have its own effects on the things it relates to...For us, a newsletter represents the sustained efforts of a people within a place to maintain a focused and yet also almost mundane relation to both the community and their habitus…
...Non-fascist or avant garde practice varyingly pushes against power's logistics.
...As this issue's Out of the Woods and Tools for Action discuss, such practices develop from and can develop towards innately radical ways of being different; because they find no compulsion to explain to authority who and why they are.
For me the most helpful and insightful aspects of The Journal of Aesthetics & Protest's newsletter project parameters and objectives are the establishing of the political and/or avant garde nature of submission content, and the collaborative and local requirements.
As long as I have had this, my professional website ginadominique.com/home.html c. 2009, I have intended but failed to create a quarterly newsletter linking to it. Prior to commencing the Transart/LJMU program earlier this year, I had, for the many years prior, inconsistently used this exact blog spot as a poor substitute. (I note now that a blog is different than a newsletter.)
I consider now that if I had established a couple of parameters, ex. collaborating with an editor partner, how practical, helpful and motivating it would have been. And the practice of establishing a theoretical, ex. creative and political aim, is even more motivating and useful.
Ultimately and in large measure because of the collaborative parameter and theoretical basis for The Journal of Aesthetics & Protest, Issue 11, the call itself is inspired and inspiring.
NOVEMBER 2021- Reading Log 4/5- Session 12: Formed in entanglement- Reza Negarestani's "Contingency and Complicity"
Edited by Robin Mackay, The Medium of Contingency is a collection of writings by economists and philosophers that includes Reza Negarestani's piece Contingency and Complicity. Negarestani, an Iranian "rationalist inhumanist" philosopher, e.g. "...concept of the human is under-explored and is a matter of theoretical and practical investigation, the results of which will lead to a thoroughgoing new conception of the human that stands in opposition to classical versions of humanism and human essentialism. He is known for "pioneering the genre of 'theory-fiction' with his book 2008 Cyclonopedia, listed as one of Artforum's 2009 best books."
Reza Negarestani initially discusses the artistic medium of contingency as a kind of "incidental expense" to the artist, but eventually I gather his underlying concept of contingency is more likely the philosophical one that is "the absence of necessity; the fact of being so without having to be so." He also discusses materiality in the metaphyscial sense that is as a "state of embodiment" and capacity.
Difficult for me is that throughout his extremely theoretical piece, Negarestani gives neither concrete/explicit nor abstract examples, but instead stacks idea upon idea so I am forced to understand his as an explicitly post-structural or open-ended writing. Given this, accurate or not, I gather he argues that the artistic medium of contingency (dictionary definition: "a provision for an unforeseen event or circumstance") is based on materiality, or on one's being, or on one's mental capacities...that is one's presence of mind and its ability to comprehend or understand itself as an active (co-)creator (aka artist) of immediate and/or distant realities or futures.
Negarestani discusses "the embracing of contingency through a rigorous and twisted mode of closure" or by complicity (the act of helping someone else behave inappropriately or illegally)...with implied "commonalities." But then he proverbially draws that post-linguistic circle, and states that "...contingency entertains no commonality with anyone."
Next he speculates, "If we consider the "contigency effectuations" (which are "generally defined as a form of reasoning or problem solving which assumes the future is largely unpredictable, but that it can be controlled through human action") as traumas..." I interpret that he suggests we essentially create our own realities "based on patterns of intrusions."
The very funniest thing that Negarestani writes is, "...when it comes to the thought of contingency, the artist must recognize herself as the conspiracy theorist of her materials. But we must first realize that the work of contingency is neither horrific nor suspenseful; it is subtly twisted...one can think of a continuum where everyday superficiality, horror, reason, comedy, suspense, and seamless uneventfulness are all fuzzy gradients of the same contingent universe that might be brought in and out of focus without respect to any necessity whatsoever."
And the most serious call Negarestani makes is in his summary, which concludes, "closure calls for a new philosophy of experimentation-- for it is not merely a recipe for art-making or writing, but a vector toward an ethics of humiliation and a science of openness." I note that in this writing, Negarestani certainly achieves this end.
NOVEMBER 2021- Reading Log 3/5- Session 12: Formed in entanglement- Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Chthulhucene Donna Haraway in conversation with Martha Kenney
In Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Chthulhucene, Martha Kenney interviewed Feminist Cyborg Scholar and Professor Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department and Feminist Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Donna Haraway.
They discuss topics of art, craft, environmentalism, feminism, and feminist science fiction, and more than once, Haraway's favorite topic of tentacularities...like "Navajo/Diné string figures called Na’at’lo and Euro-American cat’s cradle", and tentacularitism, ex. Medusa, who Haraway makes the most engaging points about:
"Then there is Medusa, whose head is tentacular and snaky. Medusa is a Gorgon, of whom there are three and only one is mortal—Medusa. And she is killed in a murder-for-hire instigated by Athena. Medusa’s body is decapitated, her head drips blood, and out of that blood sprang the coral gorgone reefs of the Western Sea, onto which the ships of the hero-explorers are dashed. So, her blood generates the coral reef—- Eva Hayward pointed that out to me. From her decapitated body springs Pegasus, the winged horse, and of course feminists have big stakes in horses. So I’m interested in the figure of Medusa as a tentacular, Gorgonic figure full of feely snakes, who threatens the children of Zeus, most certainly including the head-born daughter of Zeus, Athena. The head-born daughter is not a feminist—quite the opposite.
The Gorgons are also ambiguous about gender. They are earlier than, or other than, Chaos. Gaia/Terra are offspring of Chaos, and they don’t really have a gender, despite their iconography as goddesses; Bruno Latour emphasizes this. Gaia is not he or she, but it. They are forces of generativity, vitality, and destruction. But the dreadful ones are even more powerful. The Gorgons are dreadful—the word gorgones translates as dreadful. I think the abyssal and elemental dreadful ones are the figures that we need to inhabit in these moments of urgency which we tried to sketch at the beginning of our conversation, this living in a time of excess mass death, much of it human-induced."
Also interestingly, Haraway concludes the interview..."You could say... about techno-humanism: that we make ourselves the enemy when we enslave ourselves to the heroic-tragic man-makes-himself story. When we cut ourselves off from our collective, our becoming-with, including dying and becoming compost again. When we cut ourselves off from mortality and fear death, we become our own worst enemy in this relentless story of making ourselves in the image of death. These are the lived stories of the Anthropocene as Capitalocene. But there’s a third story, or actually myriad stories. The Chthulhucene probably won’t catch on because not enough people know the word. But the Chthulhucene would be truer. I am resigned to the term Anthropocene; I’m not going to be abstemious, and I’m not going to play purity games here. But, if only we had not started with that term… What if we had started instead by renaming our epoch, even—especially—in the Geophyiscal Union, with sym-poietic power, to signal the ongoing and non-Euclidean net bag of the Chthulhucene, a story of SF, speculative fabulation, speculative feminism, scientific fact, string figures, so far? This unfinished Chthulhocene must collect up the trash of the Anthropocene, the exterminism of the Capitalocene, and make a much hotter compost pile for still possible pasts, presents, and futures."
Science fiction, consciousness and Cyborg feminism is so very broad and covers such vast territories.
NOVEMBER 2021- Reading Log 2/5- Session 12: Formed in entanglement- Giorgio Agamben "The Coming Community" (Translated by Michael Hardt)
Giuseppe Arcimboldo, (Italian b. 1527-1593), Water, detail, 1563-64, oil on canvas, 67 x 51 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
The first etymological puzzle that Giorgio Agamben solves in his The Coming Community (Translated by Michael Hardt) chapter titled "Whatever" is that whatever means exactly the opposite of how it is used and/or understood today. Ex. rather than being a statement of indifference or meaning "it does not matter", in Latin it actually means "it always matters". He goes on to discuss the structuralism of singularity and want: %The singularity exposed as such is whatever you want, that is, lovable...Thus, whatever singularity (the Lovable) is never the intelligence of some thing, of this or that quality or essence, but only the intelligence of an intelligibility.%
Agamben begins his chapter "From Limbo" by reciting Saint Thomas' theological questions...Where do whatever singularities come from? What is their realm?, setting up a double deconstructive analysis of the state of limbo, which is one of four named Catholic hell states. (Medieval theologians of Western Europe described the underworld ("hell", "hades", "infernum") as divided into four distinct parts: Hell of the Damned, Purgatory, Limbo of the Fathers or Patriarchs, and Limbo of the Infants (the unofficial Catholic doctrine), the place where unbaptized deceased infant souls, too young to have committed actual sins, but not having been freed from original sin, permanently reside. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limbo
Agamben argues that "The greatest punishment- the lack of the vision of God -thus turns into a natural joy: Irremediably lost, they persist without pain in divine abandon. God has not forgotten them, but rather they have always already forgotten God…Like letters with no addressee, these uprisen beings remain without a destination. Neither blessed like the elected, nor hopeless like the damned, they are infused with a joy with no outlet."
My psychoanalytic brain segment asks, You mean these infant souls are in a constant state of arousal without the ability or opportunity to climax and/or relax...for eternity?... I find this alarming, but afterall, Agamben is quoting Saint Thomas, who was a Catholic Benedictine monk given the "grace of perfect chastity by Christ". (By now I am thinking both Agamben and Saint Thomas are not right.)
Then Agamben states, "This nature of limbo is the secret of Walser's world." And since I did not previously know of his work, I looked up Robert Walser, a Swiss born, German/French speaking, early-mid 20th C. writer who was fancied by Walter Benjamin, Herman Hesse, Franz Kafka and other famous 20th C. all of whom I have read. Walser's fictitious creatures have been described as what I think of as "pre-Kafka-esque", and while briefly researching,I found the pictured above 16th C. Italian G. Arcimboldo’s oil painting Water.
Agamben goes on about "Infant Limbo state" souls being "irreparably astray, but in a region that is beyond perdition and salvation: Their nullity, of which they are so proud, is principally a neutrality with respect to salvation-the most radical objection that has ever been levied against the very idea of redemption. The truly un-savable life is the one in which there is nothing to save…” I wonder if he agrees with this extreme and archaic Catholic position of no possible enlightenment/redemption for these souls?
Finally, in Example Agamben discusses in the most explicitly linguistic or post-structural terms "The antimony of the individual and the universal has its origin in language. The word "tree" designates all trees indifferently, insofar as it posits the proper universal significance in place of singular ineffable trees…The fortune of set theory in modem logic is born of the fact that the definition of the set is simply the definition of linguistic meaning..."
And he continues on with classifications, linguistic logic, and circles back to singularity, from his "Whatever" chapter, now citing it as "the example...(which) is characterized by the fact that it holds for all cases of the same type, and, at the same time, it is included among these…"
At this point I feel my head spinning in linguistic circles. And by the end of "Example", as I have a more than a hundred times in my adult life, I think of the (Western Christian) linguistics origins of John 1:1... "In the beginning the Word already existed. The Word was with God, and the Word was God." I think this because it is exactly where Agamben leads us..."This life is purely linguistic life. Only life in the word is undefinable and unforgettable. Exemplary being is purely linguistic being. Exemplary is what is not defined by any property, except by being-called…. Being-called-the property that establishes all possible belongings (being-called-Italian, -dog, -Communist) - is also what can bring them all back radically into question..."
NOVEMBER 2021- Reading Log 1/5- Session 12: Formed in entanglement- Marisol De La Cadena "An Invitation to Live Together, Making the “Complex We”"
ET from E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (aka E.T.), Steven Spielberg, producer director, 1982, American science fiction film
Anthropologist Marisol De La Cadena's linguistically complex An Invitation to Live Together, Making the “Complex We” deals with inherent issues within human classification systems. Seemingly she makes cases both for and against the “complex we”. First pointing out the problem of the shared condition from which “self” and “other”. Then she suggests that by "Displacing the anthropos through the “complex we,” the human may reemerge with what the anthropos self-severed from: with nonhumans, and thus, as in the already classic phrase, become “more than human,” with both bios and geos alike. It could also—and crucially—choose to emerge with that which exceeds those partitions (bios and geos) and the practice of classification from where they emerge. Hence it would become within the relational condition that I have speculatively conceptualized as the anthropo-not-seen-..."
She goes on, "To continue my argument, a word about classification is in order, for which I offer two reminders. First: “A classification is a spatial, temporal, or spatial-temporal segmentation of the world.” Second: “Nothing comes without its world.” Combining both reminders…I want to make a relatively obvious insinuation: the “order of things” that separated humans from nonhumans, life from nonlife, slotted the latter as geos, organized the former (bios) into species, divided them into animals, plants, and humans, and ordered the latter into hierarchies of race, gender, sexuality, class, geography, education; all these came with a specific world: the world implicitly identified with “the anthropos.” John Law calls it “the one-world world.” Of course, classifications are not inherently good or bad, and it can be said that “all worlds” classify. Yet a classification may impose itself on other classifications. And, today, what the assertion “all worlds classify” may be unable to hide any longer is that the anthropos granted to the classification that made its world the privilege to subordinate all other classifications (or worlds’ orders) and silence their worlding capacity."
De La Cadena argues that human classification systems are inherently anthropocentric, though she expressly states that classification systems are neither good nor bad, she does strongly suggest that the anthropocentric nature of 17th-18th C. European Enlightenment era systems, basically in still place, are not good… "Undoing the hierarchies of race is important indeed—yet addressing the inequalities that this regime enabled might be insufficient for the ranking that race affected also imposed a homogeneous humanity onto divergent peoples whose worlds (and everything that made them) were made equivalent to each other (and thus the same) following their distance from nature (an imposed homogeneous condition relation as well.) With this consideration, scholarly practices that decenter the anthropos by bridging the divide between nature and humanity might also be insufficient if they continue the classificatory practices that trap, for example as species, what may be not only such because they may also become through practices that exceed nature or Humanity. My proverbial example is Ausangate, an entity that emerges as mountain and earth being.
Colleagues provide other examples: jaguars that are also persons, a hunter that is (also) not not-animal. These are excesses in many ways: as earth being Ausangate exceeds geos, the jaguar that is person exceeds animal, the not not-animal hunter exceeds human and animal. They all exceed species (and their required relations) even in its most oxymoronic emergence."
Basically, De La Cadena describes creating intellectual and psychic space for a de-anthropocentricized world where surrealistic becomes realistic, where dare I write, anthropomorphized creatures actually exist: "...Instead, if replete with monsters—those that cannot be—the “complex we” has the potential both to challenge the destructive imposition of sameness performed by the world that founded the anthropos and to be unafraid of the unknown that their emergence may inaugurate. This is the invitation that the Manifesto has the potential to issue."
Her conclusion calls to mind various Ancient art historical images, and Modernist anthropomorphized animals, and various futuristic extraterritorial creatures. Images like:
Bird-Headed Deity, Artist Not Known, Calah, Iraq c. 885 B.C., limestone relief
Jean-Baptiste Deshays, Le singe peintre (The Monkey Painter), ca. 1745. Oil on canvas
ET from E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (aka E.T.), Steven Spielberg, producer director, 1982, American science fiction film
NOVEMBER 2021- Studio Practice- 3- My work on exhibition at NYU's Tandon School of Engineering
Gina Dominique, A Curtain of Tears in Front of Two Vertically Stacked Concentric Rings, cropped, Acrylic and Flashe on Gessoed, Unstretched Linen, 52 x 64", 2019-2020
My 2020 painting, pictured immediately above, was shown in November 2021 at New York University Brooklyn Tandon School of Engineering's Art in the Wild exhibit. My artist statement accompanied it:
In early September 2019 I lost my father. In early October, one month to the day later, a close uncle passed away. Then for the month of November, in a surreal state of grief, I attended a visiting artist residency in LA. There I began a dozen small paintings on canvas, and four unstreatched linen murals. This one, as they all inevitably would come to, shows my mind struggling to form a gestalt, as my father would have said... around the shocking emotional-psychological transition to life without his physical presence. Amazingly, due to an aunt’s death in late November, I left the residency a few days early to attend her funeral…the third in three consecutive months.
NOVEMBER 2021- Studio Practice- 2
Gina Dominique, Color Inventory 1, phase 2 detail, acrylic, detail, flashe and oil on canvas, 20 x 30", 2021
NOVEMBER 2021- Studio Practice- 1
Gina Dominique, Color Inventory 1, phase 1 detail, acrylic, flashe and oil on canvas, 20 x 30", 2021
During early November 2021, in my studio I started to color inventory my paints.
NOVEMBER 2021- Research 3/3- Notes on Color in Design
The Fine Line Between Art and Design
-USA Today Front Page
The eye moves from largest color image directly under the masthead to the medium-sized color image below it and then back up to the smaller color image on the left. This creates a circular motion, which keeps the viewer involved and scanning the page.
The USA Today design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Initially, only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format. The paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as a “McPaper” or "television you can wrap fish in", because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of content. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U.S. readers abroad, followed four months later on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball '85", which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USA_Today
During the early 1980s Barbara Kruger perfected a signature agitprop style, using cropped, large-scale, black-and-white photographic images juxtaposed with raucous, pithy, and often ironic aphorisms, printed in Futura Bold typeface against black, white, or deep red text bars. The inclusion of personal pronouns in works like Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1981 and Untitled (I Shop Therefore I Am), 1987, implicates viewers by confounding any clear notion of who is speaking. These rigorously composed mature works function successfully on any scale. Their wide distribution—under the artist’s supervision—in the form of umbrellas, tote bags, postcards, mugs, T-shirts, posters, and so on, confuses the boundaries between art and commerce and calls attention to the role of the advertising in public debate.
White text on red banner background creates very readable type. Use of banner boxes or headlines is directly appropriated from her years of working in advertising and newspaper graphic departments.
-Robert Wesley Wilson (1937-2020) was an American artist and one of the leading designers of psychedelic posters. Best known for designing posters for Bill Graham of the Filmore in San Francisco, he invented a style that is now synonymous with the peace movement, the psychedelic era and the 1960s. In particular, he was known for inventing and popularizing a "psychedelic" font around 1966 that made the letters look like they were moving or melting.
His style was heavily influenced by Art Nouveau. Wilson was considered to be one of "The Big Five" San Francisco poster artists, along with Alton Kelley, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin, and Stanley Mouse. Wilson often used complementary color schemes for their visual vibration.
April Greiman is an American designer widely recognized as one of the first designers to embrace computer technology as a design tool. Greiman is also credited, along with early collaborator Jayme Odgers, with helping to import the European New Wave design style to the US during the late 70s and early 80s."
April Greiman’s Poster from Design Quarterly No. 133 –
“Does it Make Sense?” 1986, shown here, is interesting in that it can be viewed from any orientation. And her use of monochromatic color scheme unifies divergent visual elements.
Pantone is the most commonly used brand of spot color inks. Employed in graphics, packaging, and products. In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run, whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors.
The widespread offset-printing process is composed of the four spot colors cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black) commonly referred to as CMYK. More advanced processes involve the use of six spot colors (hexachromatic process), which add orange and green to the process (termed CMYKOG). The two additional spot colors are added to compensate for the ineffective reproduction of faint tints using CMYK colors only. However, offset technicians around the world use the term spot color to mean any color generated by a non-standard offset ink; such as metallic, fluorescent, or custom hand-mixed inks.
-Color and Type Readability
Readability is related to how the type is arranged (or typeset) and therefore is controlled by the designer. Factors affecting type’s readability include:
Type size: When setting text, the smaller the size, the more challenging it can be to read. The demographics of your intended audience should be taken into consideration when deciding on a size for text.
Type case: Stick to upper and lowercase when readability is of prime importance.
Line spacing (aka leading): The amount of line spacing needed to improve readability will depend on the size and design of a typeface, as well as its x-height. Therefore, when ease of reading is of high importance, make sure there is enough line spacing to maximize readability, which in general is at least two to three points for print, and a bit more for smaller digital devices.
Line length: For best readability, stick to ‘average’ line length, which is usually between 45 and 70 characters.
Color, or contrast: The color of the type and background can either make the type more legible or almost Impossible to read. So make sure there is enough color contrast between the type and its background. This is important when you are using black and white (and tints of the former) as well as color. When styling type for digital usage, as they can vary dramatically in how they display color and contrast, be sure to allow for variation from one device, platform, and setting to another.
Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people. Colors can also enhance the effectiveness of placebos. (Ex. red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants.) How color influences individuals may differ depending on age, gender, and culture. For instance, heterosexual men tend to report that red outfits enhance female attractiveness, while heterosexual females deny any outfit color impacting that of men. Although color associations can vary contextually between cultures, color preference is to be relatively uniform across gender and race.
Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Marketers see color as important, as color can influence a consumers' emotions and perceptions about goods and services. Logos for companies are important, since the logos can attract more customers. This happens when customers believe the company logo matches the personality of the goods and services, such as the color pink heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. Colors are also important for window displays in stores. Research shows that colors such as red tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cool colors such as blue being more favorable. Red and yellow, as a combination, can stimulate hunger, which may help to explain, in part, the success of fast-food restaurants such as McDonald’s, Burger King, and In-N-Out Burger. The phenomenon has been referred to as the “ketchup & mustard” theory.
For Poison, Dior came up with the color of the perfume before the scent was developed. Dark, complex hues appeal to a higher economic clientele. See image here.
-The Color of Home Computing
Apple was the first to make the computer a household item and give it color. Soon, most other manufacturers followed suit. iMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, and has evolved through seven distinct forms.
In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor, mainly enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, which was refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive. The second major revision, the iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a freely moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, the iMac G5 and the Intel iMac respectively, placed all the components immediately behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base.
The 2003 iMac was snow white. The shape of the base is echoed in the form of the twin stereo speakers. All of the corners from the monitor to the keyboard were rounded off. The fifth major revision (mid 2007) shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision (late 2012) uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, and uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions. This allows it to be thinner at the edge than older models, with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm (but the same maximum depth). It also includes a dual microphone setup and includes solid-state drive (SSD) or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid-state and hard disk drives. This version of the iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch (55 cm) version released in November and the 27-inch (69 cm) version in December; these were refreshed in September 2013, with new Haswell processors, faster graphics, faster and larger SSD options and 802.11ac Wi-Fi cards.
In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch (69 cm) iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels. The new model also includes a new processor, graphics chip, and IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch (55 cm) iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels. It has the same new processor, graphics chip, and I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options.
On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version called the iMac Pro, which features Intel Xeon processors and standard SSD storage. It shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017. The iMac Pro was discontinued in 2021.
On April 20, 2021, Apple announced a 24" iMac (actual diagonal screen size is 23.5 in.) with an Apple M1 processor, its first as part of its transition to Apple silicon. It comes in 7 colors (Silver, Blue, Green, Orange, Yellow, Purple, and Pink) with a 4.5K Retina display. On the base configuration, the M1 iMacs come with two Thunderbolt 3/USB 4 ports, and two USB Type-C 3.1 Gen 2 ports on the higher configurations. Apple claims that the M1 iMac offers up to 85% faster CPU performance than the previous 21.5” iMac models. This iMac is the thinnest being only 11.5mm thin due to the entire logic board and speakers being housed in the bottom “chin” of the iMac.
The computer is now a metallic screen floating on a brushed metal sculptural base. Its minimal design continues to influence its competitors as well as dominate the market.
-Masculine (Power) Yellow
Power tools normally come in an array of silver and black colors. DeWalt’s use of yellow not only makes their line of tools easily recognizable but has also worked as a branding trademark.
The yellow color for commercial construction tools is purely cultural. This color is often associated with construction, but the main reason for using such a bright color is because construction equipment needs to be visible to people who work on a job site.
-Picking Color for the Web
You can configure the Adobe Color Picker to let you choose only colors that are part of the web-safe palette or choose from specific color systems. You can also access an HDR (high dynamic range) picker to choose colors for use in HDR images.
The first thing you need to know is how to access the color picker. Either clicking the foreground/background color swatches, which are located on the bottom left of your screen in the tool panel by default, or creating a “solid color” adjustment layer will bring up the color picker.
-Motion Graphics: Using Warm and Cool Colors
Great motion design relies heavily on color. The colors used in a project create an emotional response in viewers. Having a basic understanding of color theory can help you set the mood of a project. The cooler hues of the background appear to visually recede, pushing the warmer range of hues to the foreground.
The color wheel can be split down the middle, between warm colors and cool colors. Warm colors are on the red/yellow side, while cool colors are on the green/blue side, though as you can see in the graphic below, there are cooler and warmer shades of each color.
Warm and cool colors can work together, as you’ll see in the color combinations below, but in general you want to avoid using too many warm and cool shades, as this can appear chaotic. It’s a better idea to pick just two or three colors that work well together.
The primary function of color vision is to make it easier to identify objects, and indeed, the use of color in games reflect this. We make apples red in games because they are also red in the real world, and so we can recognize them easier in the game. But color has many other functions in games, as it does in art, design, and film…
Color is a powerful way to evoke emotion. Color grading is a popular method used (adapted from film) to adjust the colors of games in one sweep; usually with the purpose of changing the mood.
Sometimes, a color change can also be useful to reduce emotional impact. For example, to look less violent, some games color their blood green to pass certification requirements (such as those in Germany).
In Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning, the monster is comprised of warm hues while the background uses atmospheric perspective to create depth.
-Warm and Cool Colors Reversed
Higher contrast ratios typically mean deeper blacks, which makes a big difference in overall picture quality. It's of particular importance for dark scenes in movies and games, especially in a dark room.
When reverse contrast is used, see The Game Room still here, backgrounds have lighter softer tints, while the main character in the foreground is composed of deeper, darker more saturated blue and violet hues. This helps to isolate the figure from the background, as well as focus attention on the main character.
NOVEMBER 2021- Research 2/3- Notes on Color in 19th & 20st Century Painting
Mark Rothko (1903-1970), Saffron (cropped), 1957, 69½ x 53¾ in (175.6 x 136.5 cm)
Attention to the counter-intuitive, but observable, effects of different qualities of light on objects led the mid-late 19th C. French Impressionist painters to some novel technical practices that are clearly visible in their paintings:
First, unlike earlier 19th C. landscape painters who sketched outdoors and painted in their studios, because Impressionsists needed to observe colors outside of the artificial setting of the studio painted, they painted en plein air, in the open air. Monet famously asserted that he had no studio at all.
Second, where academic artists tended to begin their paintings by covering the entire canvas with a medium-dark, reddish-brown undercoating or “ground,” against which they would work up to lighter tones and down to darker ones, the Impressionists tended to first paint on a light-colored ground helping them to produce works that look saturated in light.
Third, although color usage varies considerably among the Impressionists, it is generally true that they tended to avoid the dark earth colors such as umbers, siennas and lamp black that had dominated the color palettes of earlier traditional modern painting. Instead the Impressionists rendered entire scenes in hues closer to the colors of the light spectrum: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, mixed with generous amounts of white.
As a result and fourth, rather than mixing “complementary colors” together, which makes brown tones, the Impressionists tended to use complementary colors next to one another. Complementary colors are opposite one another on a color wheel, such as red and green, violet and yellow, and blue and orange. When they are placed adjacent, they have the effect of intensifying one another...Like painting on a light-colored ground, the use of complementary colors helped the Impressionists to increase the apparent brightness of their paintings.
French Impressionist painter Claude Monet used a warm palette of intense hues to create some of his paintings of haystacks that he painted in the summer sun. He believed the color of the atmosphere (especially in winter) was violet. He used a cool palette of blues and violets to convey the feeling of the same haystacks in winter.
-Eastern Color Traditions
In his print series Thirty-six views of Mount Fuji, circa 1830-1832, Japanese printmaker Katsushika Hokusai used large flat areas of color. His and other Japanese prints were collected by 19th C.. European artists, so were especially influential in Impressionist and Post Impressionist developments.
Post-Impressionist Paul Cézanne’s use of open brushstrokes to create faceted areas of color is clearly evident in his Forest painting. To create a unified surface, he employs the same constructed planar approach to everything in the painting, including the sky, trees, and grounds.
Cézanne used a color system that he called modulation – and its subtle gradations in color – which required a larger range of colors to work from. Rather than mix colors on his palette to create new colors, he liked to use his colors, as we say today, directly from the tube.
There were two methods of showing light and dark in Impressionist painting. Modeling, created shading from light to dark, for example gradating a blue object from a light blue to a dark blue. Modulation instead expresses light to shadow/dark by using warm to cool colors.
According to Emile Bernard, Cézanne habitually used no less than nineteen colors: Cobalt Blue, Ultramarine, Prussian Blue, Emerald Green Viridian, Terre Verte, Vermilion, Red Ochre, Burnt Siena, Rose Madder, Carmine Lake, Burnt Lake, Brilliant Yellow, Naples Yellow, Chrome Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Raw Siena, Silver White and Peach Black. This list was made in 1904, towards the end of Cézanne’s life, but from about 1880 onward, his palette remained substantially unchanged. — Gerstle Mack, Paul Cézanne
Pointillism is a painting technique in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image. Branching out from Impressionism, Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886. The term "Pointillism" was coined by art critics in the late 1880s to ridicule the works of these artists, but is now used without its earlier pejorative connotation. The movement Seurat began with this technique is known as "Neo-impressionism or Post Impressionism". The Divisionists used a similar technique of patterns to form images, though with larger cube-like brushstrokes.
Painting in the pointillist technique using small dots or dabs, Pissarro took Ogden Rood’s color concepts and applied them to painting. In visual color mixing, the artist doesn’t premix colors on a palette then apply them to the canvas, but paints tiny dots or points of pure unmixed color directly. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointillism
Fauvism, Matisse and Color
Matisse burst onto the French art in the late 19th century as leader of the Fauvist group — painters with a wild use of colors that has no basis in nature. This striking departure from the artistic conventions of his day left an indelible and colorful mark on art history. With an application of paint that is raw and unrefined, the Fauvists are celebrated as les fauves or “the wild beasts”. Matisse’s ideas on color and composition, and his art movement and philosophies continue to inspire contemporary artists today.
Born in 1869 to a family of weavers, and growing up in Bohain-en-Vermandois in northern France, Henri Matisse was heavily influenced by the bright colors and patterns of local textiles. Matisse greatly admired like Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh. Both artists’ ability to build form with color and unorthodox approaches to nature would inspire Matisse throughout his artistic career.
Color and the combination of colors were at the center of all Fauvist works, shaping the structure and rhythm of each painting. Because colors were used by these artists to convey emotion rather than a specific scene, skies could be red, trees could be blue and a face could be a combination of greens and purples. For example, the left side of the face in Matisse’s Madame Matisse (The Green Line), he used warmer hues, while the right side contains more cool colors.
The result of this clashing of colors was a subject rendered by the artist’s perception of their subject rather than a true depiction of the actual physical form….Furthermore, the composition of Matisse’s works are built up through the placement of color, rather than an underlying line drawing or perspectival system.
Abstract Impressionism and Color Field Painting
Color field painting is a mid-twentieth century style of abstraction that emerged in New York City. It was inspired by European modernism and closely related to late 1940’s, early 1950’s abstract expressionism,
While many of its notable early proponents were among the pioneering abstract expressionists, color field painters were characterized primarily by their large fields of flat, solid color spread across or stained into the canvas creating areas of unbroken surface and a flat picture plane.
The movement places less emphasis on gesture, brushstrokes and action in favor of an overall consistency of form and process. In color field painting "color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself.”
Self-referential: Minimalist art does not refer to anything beyond its literal presence. The materials used are not worked to suggest something else. Color, if used, is also non-referential, ex. if a dark colour is used it does not mean the artist is trying to suggest a somber mood. In his Yellow/Orange minimalist painting, Ellsworth Kelly uses color for its optical sensations. Each colored element echoes the flat illusionistic cube surface it describes. www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/m/minimal…
Color and Op Art
Op Art was a 1960s art movement that investigated optical illusions and color interactions. Some pieces were black and white, while others exploded with color. Hungarian artist Victor Vasarely is considered to be one of the predecessors of op art. His sculpture Kedzi appears to be fully three-dimensional but is really a flat plane. The 3-D effect is purely an illusion.
New Realism and Color
Through presenting what was real rather than what was appropriated or conjured, the Nouveaux Réalistes stripped art of a dogma that insisted it had to mean something. On the heels of Dada, they took the readymade object beyond negativity, banality, or polemics to become an active participant in a work of art or performance in its simple, unadorned form. An accumulation of trash became a picture. A crushed car informed a sculpture. A block of color could dwell on a wall, unapologetically itself.
Late 20th C. Visual Color Mixing
The highly decorative surface of Chuck Close’s work keeps the viewer’s eye moving between colored dots that make up the patterned surface and the overall image. Close, who is known for imposing a set of rules on a given body of work, sometimes sets himself the task of painting with only three colors: red, yellow, and cyan in thin washes of oil. By applying layers of paint in seemingly infinite combinations to each little square, he produces an electric and dazzling array of color. The candy-store hues that make up a Closee painting ultimately achieve a meditative work with alchemical appeal. brooklynrail.org/2015/10/artseen/chuck-…
Neo-expressionism and Color
The warm bright hues create a feeling of frenetic movement, pushing the image to the foreground. As the colors move into the background they become less saturated, which helps to create some sense of depth. As with earlier expressionist movements, color is used for its emotional content without regard for the natural world.
1980s Neoexpressionist style in general is often marked by vivid colours and contrasts, in the tradition of fauvism; rapid, violent brushwork; distorted subject matter; and a generally spontaneous technique, sometimes incorporating 'found' objects.
Aboriginal and Outsider Art
Aboriginal art is the oldest unbroken tradition in the world, and is iconic for its use of colours to tell stories and communicate visually. As Aboriginal culture does not have a written language, drawings and paintings are crucial to passing along knowledge and history through generations.
Materials including colours used for Aboriginal art were originally obtained from the local land. Ochre or iron clay pigments were used to produce different colours. Other colours, such as smoky greys, sage greens and saltbush mauves were later added.
True of paintings created by aboriginal men, Darby Jampitjinpa Ross uses colorful wavy lines to represent ceremonial journeys.
Digital Art and Color
The first piece of digital art that became widely known was created in the 1960s in the scientific research company Bell Labs where EAT founder Billy Klüver was employed. It was here that computer graphics specialist Kenneth C. Knowlton, in his work Young Nude, 1966, transformed a photograph of a young nude woman into an image made up of computer pixels, bringing the historical artist's muse (the naked female body) into the 21st-century art lexicon.
Vik Muniz uses bits of paper to produce his large-scale 21st C. pointillist works. He uses the same concept of visual color mixing (directly on the canvas) as Post-Impressionist Pointillist Georges Seurat used to generate his chromatic hues.
In the 1960s light art became an increasingly popular feature in modern art, running in tandem with Minimalism, which celebrated clean, pure lines and a machine-like aesthetic. In the United States various artists led the way into the Light and Space movement, which had an international influence in the next few decades.
Dan Flavin was a major figure, producing quasi-religious installations and geometric arrangements with found fluorescent light tubes. James Turrell captured natural light in powerful sculptural constructions; his ‘Skyspace’ installations open large windows into the sky beyond from architectural chambers, allowing natural light to flood through in its many permutations and weather patterns.
Art historian Calvin Tompkins writes, (Turrell’s) work is not about light, or a record of light; it is light – the physical presence of light made manifest in sensory form.
Depending upon their placement in Joe Chesla, Letting Go a Breath I Didn't Know I Was Holding, 2009, light installation, the amount and quality of light and heat each bag received influenced the algae’s growth. This impacted the color and patterns created within each of the units.
Many light art installations exist in the cities around us as public works of art, taking a variety of temporary and permanent forms, including neon signage, advertising slogans and large scale installations in public buildings, museums, and city centers, revealing the hugely spirited and adventurous ways artists continue to expand its boundaries.
NOVEMBER 2021- Research 1/3- Notes on Color and 3-dimensionality
James Turrell, Ganzefeld, Aural exhibition installation view, Jewish Museum Berlin, 2009
-Stone sculptures are usually carved but they are sometimes assembled to form a visually interesting three-dimensional artwork. Stone is more durable than most alternative materials, making it especially important in architectural sculpture, done on the outside of buildings.
-The Myth of Whiteness - Western Classical (Greek and Roman) era statues were often painted, but assumptions about race and aesthetics have suppressed this truth. Now scholars are making a color correction.
-Since the Classical Western (Greco Roman) era, marble has been the preferred stone for sculptors in the European tradition. It is available in a wide variety of colors, from white through pink and red to grey and black. The hardest stone frequently carved is granite, at about 8 on the Mohs scale.
-20th C. sculptor Constantine Brancusi’s concept of truth in materials led him to create sculptures with highly polished surfaces to bring out the natural elegance of the materials.
…Because of the color and striation of the marble…and the highly polished finish…
-Barbara Hepworth's Mother and Child, 1934 is another sculptural piece carved from colored stone.
-Wood Finishes - baring, varnishing, and staining woods are a way of altering the color of a wooden sculpture, while still letting the natural wood grain show through. These are ways of allowing for truth in materials*.
-Totem poles are a type of monumental carving indigenous to Northwest Coast Native American artists. The form consists of poles, posts or pillars, carved with symbols or figures. They are usually made from large trees, mostly western red cedar. First Nations and indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast including northern Northwest Coast Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian communities in Southeast Alaska and British Columbia, Kwakwaka'wakw and Nuu-chah-nulth communities in southern British Columbia, and the Coast Salish communities in Washington and British Columbia.
The word totem derives from the Algonquian word odoodem meaning (his) kinship group. The carvings may symbolize or commemorate ancestors, cultural beliefs that recount familiar legends, clan lineages, or notable events. The poles may also serve as functional architectural features, welcome signs for village visitors, mortuary vessels for the remains of deceased ancestors, or as a means to publicly ridicule someone. They may embody a historical narrative of significance to the people carving and installing the pole. Given the complexity and symbolic meanings of these various carvings, their placement and importance lies in the observer's knowledge and connection to the meanings of the figures and the culture in which they are embedded. The application of color on the planes of the form intensify the 3-dimensionality of a totem, which is typically caved in shallow relief.
-20th C. American Photo Realist sculptor Duane Hanson, born in Minnesota, spent most of his career in South Florida, was known for his life-sized hyper realistic figurative sculptures. He used live models to cast his works in various materials, including polyester resin, fiberglass, Bondo, and bronze. Duane Hanson’s sculptures look so real viewers sometimes try to converse with them. Most of his models were Hanson’s friends or colleagues.
-Patina is a thin layer that variously forms on the surface of copper, brass, bronze and similar metals, or certain stones, and wooden furniture, or any similar acquired change of a surface through age and exposure. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patina
To add color to their metal artworks, some metal sculptors use patinas. In her metal The Waste That is Our Own, Phoebe Adams used a dark green patina to color the liquid, and a much softer green hued patina to color the cloth behind the pitcher. The pitcher, left bare, has no patina, but is highly polished.
-Hard porcelain glaze was usually (and stoneware salt glaze, always) fired at the same time as the raw clay body at the same high temperature. Basically, there are four principal kinds of glazes: feldspathic, lead, tin, and salt. Soft porcelain glaze was always applied in this way. www.britannica.com/art/pottery/Decorati…
-One of the most important artists of the last century, Frank Stella is a rule breaker whose style has consistently evolved over the the decades, Stella is known for his revolutionary approach to materials as well as his continued exploration of color, form, dimension, and architecture. The multi-colored, highly patterned surface of his reliefs confuses the eye and visually appears to flatten out the works.
-Glass artist Dale Chihuly captures a variety of vivid hues while working with the glass’s inherent transparency. His work is very theatrical, with swirling layers of color that move the viewer’s eye throughout the ceiling installation, image right…detail below. The shapes of the glass forms Chihuly uses are reminiscent of flowers, shells, and other organic forms.
-I was always a colorist, I’ve always had a phenomenal love of color… I mean, I just move color around on its own. So that’s where the […] paintings came from—to create that structure to do those colors, and do nothing. I suddenly got what I wanted. It was just a way of pinning down the joy of color.
...the words of Damien Hirst, the enfant terrible of the late 20th century best known for his bisected animals submerged in formaldehyde, cabinets filled with medical supplies and an installation consisting of live maggots and a severed cow’s head?
-In his Magnet TV, pioneering video artist Nam June Pike used a magnet to alter the electromagnetic field of the picture tube, which creates the blue arcing lines on the tv screen.
-Many light art installations exist in the cities around us as public works of art, taking a variety of temporary and permanent forms, including neon signage, advertising slogans and large scale installations in public buildings, museums, and city centers, revealing the hugely spirited and adventurous ways artists continue to expand its boundaries. American artist James Turrell, born May 6, 1943, is an known for his work within the Light and Space movement. His work Ganzfelds, a German word to describe the phenomenon of the total loss of depth perception as in the experience of a white-out, shown here, in this case, is effectively a total ”pink out”.
-Art that is made by shaping the land itself or by making forms in the land using natural materials like rocks or tree branches. Earthworks range from subtle, temporary interventions in the landscape to significant, sculptural, lasting alterations made with heavy earth-moving machinery. Some artists have also brought the land into galleries and museums, creating installations out of dirt, sand, and other materials taken from nature. Earthworks were part of the wider conceptual art movement in the 1960s and 1970s. Also called Land Art or Earth Art. www.moma.org/collection/terms/earthwork
-Andy Goldsworthy OBE is an English artist, sculptor, photographer and environmentalist who produces site-specific sculptures and land art situated in natural and urban environments. Goldsworthy always works from the objects he finds on location. In his Rowan Leaves & Hole, he gathered leaves from the site in varying colors.
-Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be live, through documentation, spontaneously or written, presented to a public in a Fine Art context, traditionally interdisciplinary. Also known as artistic action, it has been developed through the years as a genre of its own in which art is presented live. It had an important and fundamental role in 20th century avant garde art.
-Blue Man Group is an American performance art company formed in 1987 known for its stage productions which incorporate many kinds of music and art, both popular and obscure, in its performances. Performers, known as "Blue Men", have their skin painted blue. During productions, the performers are mute and blue men always appear in groups of three.
OCTOBER 2021- SESSION 11.2 NYC MICRO-RESIDENCY Summary
"Pre-video" still from video in MoMA PS1's 5th Greater New York exhibition.
I attended Transart's October 2021 SESSION 11.2 MICRO-RESIDENCY NEW YORK. I was among several 1st and 2nd year TT/LJMU Postgraduate Researchers who, for the first time in-person, met. We did that on Thursday, 28 October 2021 at Bluestone Lane church.
From there we headed to the Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum and took in these exhibitions: Suzie Zuzek for Lilly Pulitzer: The Prints That Made the Fashion Brand www.cooperhewitt.org/channel/zuzek/ Underground Modernist: E. McKnight Kauffer, www.cooperhewitt.org/channel/kauffer/, Nature by Design: Selections from the Permanent Collection, and Jon Gray of Ghetto Gastro Selects www.cooperhewitt.org/channel/jon-gray-o…
I spent Thursday afternoon with TT cohort memebers at the Elizabeth Foundation for the Arts. First was sat in on Designed Realitites: A Table Talk With Fiona Raby, dunneandraby.co.uk/content/projects. Then we did two studio visits with radically different but equally impressive artists: Jason File www.jasonfile.com/works, and A Young Yu www.ayoung-yu.com/. Finally, we attended Fusions and Disjunctions a table talk with the stunning performance artist/figurative painter David Antonio Cruz www.cruzantoniodavid.com/.
On Friday several of us saw the MoMA PS1's 5th Greater New York survey of artists living and working in the New York City area...(Note: When I saw STROBE ON 3, image above, I thought it was the conceptual light installation...haha...only when I got to STROBE ON 2 did I realize that the piece was the upcoming strobe lights...being a migraine sufferer, I left before it began. See some installation pics of works I did see: www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/5352?…. And in the afternoon we took in Whitney Museum exhibitions, including their part of the 65 year Jasper Johns Mind/Mirror survey: whitney.org/exhibitions/jasper-johns, Labyrinth of Forms: Women and Abstraction, 1930–1950 whitney.org/exhibitions/labyrinth-of-fo…, Making Knowing: Craft in Art, 1950–2019 whitney.org/exhibitions/making-knowing, and Jennifer Packer: The Eye Is Not Satisfied With Seeing whitney.org/exhibitions/jennifer-packer
Saturday morning about seven of us took part in Stephen Kwok's Blocking event at the Swiss institute on St Mark's Place. www.newinc.org/year-8-members/stephen-k…. That afternoon, we participated in Awarness: A Somatic Movement Session with Luis lara Malvacias laramalvacias.org/HOME_1.html That evening, after Hyphenation, A talk WITH STEPHEN KWOK, at his Brooklyn studio, a handful of TT researchers presented on our own work. I spoke on my Pink Drishti paintings ginadominique.com/section/484362-2018-2… and accompanying Pink Universe installation ginadominique.com/home.html.
OCTOBER 2021- Studio Practice- Pandemic Painting at Woodstock Artist Assoc. & Museum Artist Talk
Gina Dominique, Pandemic Painting #18, cropped, Acrylic on Canvas, 24 x 18", 2020
On Tuesday, October 19, 2021 6-7:30 PM EST, I participated in WAAM Fall Artist Talks, speaking on my Pandemic Paintings, one pictured here, and currently exhibited at Woodstock Artists Association & Museum, 28 Tinker St, Woodstock, NY. It was a "High Flex" event, with people attending both online via zoom and masked onsite.
This month I also updated my website to include my two most recent bodies of work, completed during the last eight months of my 2019-2020 sabbatical. Click here to see my Tourbillion Paintings and Pandemic Paintings portfolios:
My October 2021 quick reads included:
(It's cool to the touch and it cools the surrounding air temperature!) "The whitest paint is here- and it's the coolest. Literally." www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2021/Q…
"Vantablack: It's blacker than black, but where is the world's darkest material being used?" www.abc.net.au/news/science/2017-01-13/…
And for both my PhD ChromaTheory topic, as well as my Relativity of Color class lectures, I researched, prepared and uploaded to my BlackBoard course site three additional online slide lectures.
Find the three new summaries of my October research/lecture notes posted immediately below. And with them, see just a couple of the of dozens of inspiring, informative topic-specific charts and images I also research, document and use.
Note: Also ind August and two September research/lecture notes research notes posts earlier on this blog.
OCTOBER 2021- Research 3/3- Notes on Digital Color
Digital images are made up of pixels. Pixels are composed of light and are two-dimensional. In computer graphics, pixelation (or pixellation in British English) is caused by displaying a bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual pixels, small single-colored square display elements that comprise the bitmap, are visible. Such an image is said to be pixelated (pixellated in the UK). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixelation
-Raster-based programs include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, Sketchbook Pro, and GIMP. You can resize your files, but making them larger may cause pixelation and distortion of the image. Raster images are best for illustrations and paintings that would not require them to be blown up in size.
-Vector graphics software allows users to design and manipulate computer images using geometric and mathematical commands, rather than clicks and strokes as used in drawing software. ... Vector graphics tools are often used to create high-definition illustrations for use on the web, in games, and other multimedia.
-The clean lines and discrete areas of color are characteristic features of vector-based programs. Ex. Nancy Stahl used the stamp motif in her Self Promotional Item as a recognizable element since she has designed several nature-related stamps for the U.S. Postal Service.
-More specifically, a vector graphic is an artwork made up of points, lines, and curves that are based upon mathematical equations, rather than solid colored square pixels. This means no matter the size or how far zoomed in the image is, the lines, curves, and points remain smooth.
-The RGB color model is an additive color model in which the red, green, and blue primary colors of light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.
-The main purpose of the RGB color model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors.
-RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual red, green, and blue levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time. Thus an RGB value does not define the same color across devices without some kind of color management.
-Typical RGB input devices are color TV and video cameras, image scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRT, LCD, plasma, OLED, quantum dots, etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolor LED displays and large screens such as the Jumbotron. Color printers, on the other hand are not RGB devices, but subtractive color devices typically using the CMYK color model.
-A color picker, also called a color chooser or color tool, is a graphical user interface widget, usually found within graphics software or online, used to select colors and sometimes to create color schemes, used to select and adjust color values. In graphic design and image editing, users typically choose colors via an interface with a visual representation of a color—organized with quasi-perceptually-relevant hue, saturation and lightness dimensions (HSL) – instead of keying in alphanumeric text values. Because color appearance depends on comparison of neighboring colors (see color vision), many interfaces attempt to clarify the relationships between colors. When the tool is engaged on a color to pick, the color may also be changed from the original one selected with it. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_picker
-Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages on the World Wide Web, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. Colors may be specified as an RGB triplet or in hexadecimal format (a hex triplet) or according to their common English names in some cases. A color tool or other graphics software is often used to generate color values. In some uses, hexadecimal color codes are specified with notation using a leading number sign #. A color is specified according to the intensity of its red, green and blue components, each represented by eight bits. Thus, there are 24 bits used to specify a web color within the sRGB gamut, and 16,777,216 colors that may be so specified.
-Colors outside the sRGB gamut can be specified in Cascading Style Sheets by making one or more of the red, green and blue components negative or greater than 100%, so the color space is theoretically an unbounded extrapolation of sRGB similar to scRGB. Specifying a non-sRGB color this way requires the RGB() function call. It is impossible with the hexadecimal syntax (and thus impossible in legacy HTML documents that do not use CSS). en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_colors
-A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with color profiling supported by various physical devices, it supports reproducible representations of color -- whether such representation entails an analog or a digital representation. A color space may be arbitrary, i.e. with physically realized colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches with corresponding assigned color names (including discrete numbers in for example, the Pantone collection), or structured with mathematical rigor (as with the NCS System, Adobe RGB and sRGB). A "color space" is a useful conceptual tool for understanding the color capabilities of a particular device or digital file. When trying to reproduce color on another device, color spaces can show whether you will be able to retain shadow/highlight detail, color saturation, and by how much either will be compromised.
-What are liquid crystals? We're used to the idea that a given substance can be in one of three states: solid, liquid, or gas —we call them states of matter—and up until the late 19th century, scientists thought that was the end of the story. Then, in 1888, an Austrian chemist named Friedrich Reinitzer (1857–1927) discovered liquid crystals, which are another state entirely, somewhere in between liquids and solids. Liquid crystals might have lingered in obscurity but for the fact that they turned out to have some very useful properties.
Solids are frozen lumps of matter that stay put all by themselves, often with their atoms packed in a neat, regular arrangement called a crystal (or crystalline lattice). Liquids lack the order of solids and, though they stay put if you keep them in a container, they flow relatively easily when you pour them out. Now imagine a substance with some of the order of a solid and some of the fluidity of a liquid. What you have is a liquid crystal—a kind of halfway house in between. At any given moment, liquid crystals can be in one of several possible "substates" (phases) somewhere in a limbo-land between solid and liquid. The two most important liquid crystal phases are called "nematic" and "smectic". www.explainthatstuff.com/lcdtv.html
-A PDP or plasma display panel is a type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields. Plasma TVs were the first large (over 32 inches diagonal) flat panel displays to be released to the public.
-Until about 2007, plasma displays were commonly used in large televisions (30 inches (76 cm) and larger).
-Since then, they have lost nearly all market share due to competition from low-cost LCDs and more expensive but high-contrast OLED flat-panel displays. Manufacturing of plasma displays for the United States retail market ended in 2014, and manufacturing for the Chinese market ended in 2016. Plasma displays are obsolete, having been superseded in most if not all aspects by OLED displays. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_display
-In digital imaging systems, color management (or colour management) is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.
-The primary goal of color management is to obtain a good match across color devices; for example, the colors of one frame of a video should appear the same on a computer LCD monitor, on a plasma TV screen, and as a printed poster. Color management helps to achieve the same appearance on all of these devices, provided the devices are capable of delivering the needed color intensities. With photography, it is often critical that prints or online galleries appear how they were intended. Color management cannot guarantee identical color reproduction, as this is rarely possible, but it can at least give more control over any changes which may occur.
-Parts of this technology are implemented in the operating system (OS), helper libraries, the application, and devices. A cross-platform view of color management is the use of an ICC-compatible color management system. The International Color Consortium (ICC) is an industry consortium that has defined:
-An open standard for a Color Matching Module (CMM) at the OS level color profiles for:
--Devices, including devicelink-profiles that represent a complete color transformation from source device to target device
--Working spaces, the color spaces in which color data is meant to be manipulated. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_management
-CCD Chip- A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensors are a major technology used in digital imaging.
-In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. These MOS capacitors, the basic building blocks of a CCD, are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface; the CCD is then used to read out these charges.
-Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are widely used in professional, medical, and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required.
-In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors, also known as CMOS sensors (complementary MOS sensors), are generally used. However, the large quality advantage CCDs enjoyed early on has narrowed over time and since the late 2010s CMOS sensors are the dominant technology, having largely if not completely replaced CCD image sensors. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charge-coupled_de…
-Digital data storage is essentially the recording of digital information in a storage medium, usually by electronic means. The storage device typically enables a user to store large amounts of data in a relatively small physical space and makes sharing that information with others easy. The device may be capable of holding the data either temporarily or permanently.
-Digital data storage devices have many uses. For example, computers usually rely upon information storage to function. Storage media can also be used to back up important information (storing digital data can involve durability and reliability issues, so making independent copies of information is normally a sensible precaution). Some storage devices are also portable, meaning that they can be used to transfer information from one computer to another.
-Digital data storage media generally fall into one of five categories: magnetic storage devices, optical storage devices, flash memory devices, online/cloud storage, and paper storage.
-10 Digital Data Storage Devices for Computers
Hard Drive Disks
Compact Discs (CDs)
DVD and Blu-ray Discs
USB Flash Drives
Secure Digital Cards (SD Card)s
Solid-State Drives (SSDs)
-In offset printing, a spot color or solid color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run, whereas a process color is produced by printing a series of dots of different colors.
Spot color classification has led to thousands of discrete colors being given unique names or numbers. There are several industry standards in the classification of spot color systems, such as:
Pantone, the dominant spot color printing system in the United States and Europe.
Toyo, a common spot color system in Japan.
DIC Color System Guide, another spot color system common in Japan, is based on Munsell color theory.
ANPA, a palette of 300 colors specified by the American Newspaper Publishers Association for spot color usage in newspapers.
GCMI, a standard for color used in package printing developed by the Glass Packaging Institute (formerly known as the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute, hence the abbreviation).
HKS is a color system which contains 120 spot colors and 3,250 tones for coated and uncoated paper. HKS is an abbreviation of three German color manufacturers: Hostmann-Steinberg Druckfarben, Kast + Ehinger Druckfarben and H. Schmincke & Co.
RAL is a color matching system used in Europe. The so-called RAL CLASSIC system is mainly used for varnish and powder coating.
Because each color system creates their own colors from scratch, spot colors from one system may be impossible to find within the library of another. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spot_color
-Printing is simply making a copy of text or images using a template. There is no single definition of production printing. That said, production printing is a step above a desktop printer or basic office copier. Production printing delivers higher-quality copies, larger print runs, and faster output.
-There are two types of production printing systems.
1. Monochrome production printing delivers high-quality black-and-white prints. It’s typically used for high-quantity print runs where costs can be lowered using the higher volume. Production printing delivers higher printing efficiency as well, with speeds as high as 250 pages per minute with minimal loss in quality. Companies often use monochrome production printing for user manuals, tests, text-based reports, and invoices. Scheduled print jobs, rather than quick-hit, one-off projects, are suited to monochrome production printing.
2. Color production printing delivers high-quality printed color materials. Color production systems typically offer sophisticated design and printing options, as well as the technology to reliably render a range of colors quickly. These systems are suited to smaller print runs to deliver targeted, high-quality content on demand. Businesses use color production printing for jobs like company reports, marketing collateral, booklets, photos, images, posters, and catalogs. These jobs often require exact color matching and printing accuracy, using Pantone colors, to reproduce the original template. www.dme.us.com/2018/11/27/printing-need…
-While there are many techniques for reproducing images in color, specific graphic processes and industrial equipment are used for mass reproduction of color images on paper. In this sense, color printing involves reproduction techniques suited for printing presses capable of thousands or millions of impressions for publishing newspapers and magazines, brochures, cards, posters and similar mass-market items.
-In this type of industrial or commercial printing, the technique used to print full-color images, such as color photographs, is referred to as four-color-process or process printing. Four inks are used: three secondary colors plus black. These ink colors are cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black); abbreviated as CMYK
-A method of full-color printing is six-color process printing like Pantone's Hexachrome system, adds orange and green to the traditional CMYK inks for a larger and more vibrant gamut, or color range. However, such alternate color systems still rely on color separation, half-toning and lithography to produce printed images. Six-color printing is widely used to increase the printability and so that to increase the production.
-An emerging method is extended gamut printing or 7 color printing, which adds three more colors such as green, orange and violet to extend the printability or gamut so that a wide range of Pantone colors also can be reproduced without changing the ink settings. This method is also called OGV printing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_printing
-Giclée (pronounced “zhee-clays”) printing is used to make prints of original artworks. Giclée is a French term meaning “to spray”…These large format inkjet printers use small spraying devices that can both match color and apply ink precisely, giving artists a high-quality print of their original art. The giclée printing process allows images to be printed on canvas, silk, and a wide variety of fine art papers. But, not all inkjet printers produce giclée prints. It all boils down to these four elements: resolution, ink, paper, and printer type.
-As far as ink and paper go, they must be high quality and “archival.” This is achieved by using archival pigment-based inks vs. dye-based, and printing on canvas, watercolor paper, or archival printing paper. Giclée printers are typically larger models able to hold up to 12 ink cartridges that produce a wider range of colors for duplicating artwork. www.artworkarchive.com/blog/everything-…
-A wire-frame model, also wireframe model, is a visual representation of a three-dimensional (3D) physical object used in 3D computer graphics. It is created by specifying each edge of the physical object where two mathematically continuous smooth surfaces meet, or by connecting an object's constituent vertices using (straight) lines or curves. The object is projected into screen space and rendered by drawing lines at the location of each edge. -The term "wire frame" comes from designers using metal wire to represent the three-dimensional shape of solid objects. 3D wire frame computer models allow for the construction and manipulation of solids and solid surfaces. 3D solid modeling efficiently draws higher quality representations of solids than conventional line drawing. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wire-frame_model
-The wire frame is then covered with a texture map, which contains the color and texture of the items. Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. The original technique was pioneered by Edwin Catmull in 1974.
-Texture mapping originally referred to diffuse mapping, a method that simply mapped pixels from a texture to a 3D surface ("wrapping" the image around the object). In recent decades, the advent of multi-pass rendering, multitexturing, mipmaps, and more complex mappings such as height mapping, bump mapping, normal mapping, displacement mapping, reflection mapping, specular mapping, occlusion mapping, and many other variations on the technique (controlled by a materials system) have made it possible to simulate near-photorealism in real time by vastly reducing the number of polygons and lighting calculations needed to construct a realistic and functional 3D scene. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texture_mapping
-Computer-generated imagery, CGI, is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, simulators, computer animation and VFX in films, television programs, shorts, commercials, and videos. The images may be dynamic or static, and may be two-dimensional (2D), although the term "CGI" is most commonly used to refer to the 3-D computer graphics used for creating characters, scenes and special effects in films and television, which is described as "CGI animation".
-The first feature film to make use of CGI was the 1973 movie Westworld. Other early films that incorporated CGI include Star Wars (1977), Tron (1982), The Last Starfighter (1984), Young Sherlock Holmes (1985), and Flight of the Navigator (1986).
-The first music video to use CGI was *Dire Straits' award-winning "Money for Nothing" *(1985), whose success was instrumental in giving the process mainstream exposure.
-The evolution of CGI led to the emergence of virtual cinematography in the 1990s, where the vision of the simulated camera is not constrained by the laws of physics. Availability of CGI software and increased computer speeds have allowed individual artists and small companies to produce professional-grade films, games, and fine art from their home computers.
-The term virtual world refers to agent-based, interactive environments, which are now[when?] created with CGI. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-generate…
-A radiance map is an image that represents the true illuminance values of a scene. Radiance map reconstruction further contains two separate steps:
-1) recovering the response curves for the three color channels which map the pixel values to the log of exposure values, and
-2) mapping the observed pixel values and exposure times to radiance…The recovered response curves could then be used to compute the radiance map based on ln (radiance at the ith pixel) = g(ith pixel value in image j) - ln(exposure time of image j).
-NTSC is an abbreviation for National Television Standards Committee, named for the group that originally developed the black & white and subsequently color television system that is used in the United States, Japan and many other countries.
-The NTSC Color Space is an RGB color space that was introduced in 1953 by the FCC. The color space features a color gamut that is much wider than RGB. While this color space is not used in modern displays, it is commonly used to compare and specify color gamut coverage.
-The* NTSC Colors filter in Photoshop* is used to remove colors that are too saturated for broadcast. And Adobe Premiere Pro provides professional-quality color grading and color correction tools that allows for grade footage directly on the editing timeline.
-Color tools are available within a Lumetri Color workspace in Premiere Pro and permit color adjustment, contrast, and light in sequences. Move freely between editing and color grading without the need to export or launch a separate grading application. helpx.adobe.com/premiere-pro/using/colo…
OCTOBER 2021- Research 2/3- Notes on Pigments, Colorants and Paints
Debu Barve Pigments, 2021
-Prehistoric artists worked in what must have been smoky conditions, using minerals as pigments for their images. Reds, yellows, and blacks were the predominant colours used. Red came from hematite, either raw or as found within red clay and ochre. Yellow was found in iron oxyhydroxides, and black either in charcoal or manganese oxides. The pigments could be prepared by grinding, mixing, or heating, after which they were transferred onto the cave walls. The earliest known pigments used were a limited natural color range. www.worldhistory.org/Lascaux_Cave/
-Ground pigments are the actual source of color in paints, colored pencils, and pastels. Tens of thousands of years ago, humans discovered that combining colored earth with a sticky liquid such as animal fats resulted in something that could be used to make a mark. These primitive paints were often made from colored rocks, earth, bone, and minerals, which could be ground into powders, and mixed with egg or animal byproducts to bind the solution and make paint.
- During Classical Greco-Roman, Early Christian and Gothic Eras, Western painters made their own paints by grinding pigment into oil.
-During the Early and Middle Modern era, paints were sold in pig bladders.
-By the Industrial Revolution, c. mid 1800s, the invention of the metal tube allowed for the commercial production and distribution of oil paints.
-Oil paint consists of small grains of pigment suspended in oil. Although it appears smooth to the naked eye, on a microscopic level, particles of pigment are suspended in oil, as fruit is suspended in a a set gelatin mold. www.webexhibits.org/pigments/intro/pain…
-The Fundamental Information on a Paint (Tube) Label includes:
--Common color name
--Names of the pigment(s) used.
--The color index names and number(s)
--The vehicle the pigment is suspended in (e.g. acrylic polymer emulsion for acrylic paint, or gum arabic for watercolor and gouache).
--Lightfastness or permanence rating
--Size of paint tube or container
-Paintbrushes come in many shapes, sizes, and bristle types—and all of these qualities can be either an aid or an impediment to an artist, depending on their desired results.
-Different types of brushes are used for different media. When it comes to bristles, artists can choose between animal hair (such as hog bristle, sable, and mongoose) or synthetic bristles.
-For oil and acrylic painters, long-handled easel paint brushes with soft bristles make smooth paint strokes. For blended, flat paint surfaces, sable, mongoose, or soft synthetic brushes are ideal. Long-bristled, soft brushes are excellent for making irregular, “hairy” marks at the end of a brushstroke.
-Long-handled easel paint brushes with coarser bristles are a good choice for creating rough effects or the thick impasto strokes. Hog bristle and stiff, springy synthetics are well-suited to heavy paint and will leave painterly tracks in the pigment.
-Flat brushes are versatile, while round brushes come in pointed and blunt tips. Filberts have long, tapered tongue-shaped bristles. The bright is a short-bristled, flat brush that’s ideal for short, controlled strokes. The fan brush is a splayed, flat brush with a round tip. And rigger brushes are thin rounds with very long bristles.
-Watercolorists use soft, short-handled brushes in many of the same shapes that oil and acrylic painters use, with two notable additions: the wash and the mop brushes.
-Masstone / Undertone
The masstone of a paint is simply its color when applied thickly enough to completely cover a surface. Ex. See top right. No other colors from below show through.
The undertone, by contrast, is visible when we spread the color very thinly over a white surface. Ex. See bottom right.
Certain colors, like Cadmiums and Cobalts, have similar masstones and undertones.
Transparent, organic colors like the Quinacridones and Phthalos, the undertone can be quite different from one another.
-Watercolor paint is made of a few simple ingredients, but the two main components are the pigment to provide the color, and the binder gum-arabic to provide the color vehichle.
-Watercolor paints also contain some other additives which alter the paint’s appearance, the way the paint performs, and to extend the shelf life of the product.
-There are over 100 natural or synthetic pigments used in artists watercolor paint. Some of the natural pigments are hard to acquire, which makes certain colors more expensive.
-Because gum arabic and synthetic binders tend to dry too quickly and become too hard, watercolor paint includes a moisturizer and a plasticizer. The type of moisturizer used is often glucose (for example corn syrup) or sometimes even honey!
-A small amount of brightener is sometimes added to watercolor paint. This is usually transparent or white crystals which enhance the color of the pigment, or adjust the lightness of the paint when dried.
-Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of pigment particles suspended in a linseed oil binder. The viscosity of the paint may be modified by the addition of a solvent such as turpentine or white spirit, and varnish may be added to increase the glossiness of the dried oil paint. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_paint
-Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment particles suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion and plasticizers, silicon oils, defoamers, stabilizers, or metal soaps. Most acrylic paints are water-based, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, or modified with acrylic gels, mediums, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor, a gouache, or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media.
-Encaustic is a wax-based paint, composed of beeswax, resin and pigment* that during application, is kept molten on a heated palette. In order to fuse the paint to a surface, it is applied then reheated. The word ‘encaustic’ comes from the Greek word enkaiein, meaning to burn in, referring to this fusing process.
-And encaustic as versatile as any 21st century medium. It can be polished to a high gloss, carved, scraped, layered, collaged, dipped, cast, modeled, sculpted, textured, and combined with oil. It cools immediately, so that there is no drying time, yet it can always be reworked.
-Since the varnish is intrinsic to its formulation, encaustic paintings do not need additional varnishing or added protection. Beeswax is impervious to moisture, a major cause of paint deterioration. Wax resists moisture far more than resin varnish or oil.
-Types of Digital Printer Inks
- Two of the most common types of printers are laser printers and inkjet printers.
-Laser printers use powdered toner. Toner ”ink” is a dry powder composed of a large number of plastic particles. The toner is heated and applied to the printing surface with a drum.
-Inkjet printers use ink cartridges filled with tinted liquid ink and additives. Liquid Ink is made in both fugitive, dye-based and archival, pigment-based forms.
--Fugitive dye-based liquid inks are typically used in production printing.
--Archival pigment-based inks are used in fine-art Giclee printing.
-Solid ink, which has a waxy crayon-like consistency is used in some printers instead of liquid ink. Solid ink printers heat the ink and apply it to the printing surface, where it dries and cures.
-Ribbon Ink is most often used with dot matrix printers and thermal transfer printers. With impact and dot matrix printers, an ink-soaked ribbon is pressed against the page to print. With thermal transfer printers, the ribbon has a wax or resin coating that is melted by a heated print head to expose the ink and print it on the page.
-UV-ink is cured onto the printing surface in the presence of UV light. This type of ink dries very quickly, and it is among the most expensive.
-3D Printing ink is not actually ink, but is the 3D printing material. Materials that most 3D printers actually use is resin! While fairly pricey, 3D printing resin is available in a wide range of colors and various materials.
-Colored pencil leads contain a combination of pigments, binders, resins, and often wax. The best quality colored pencils have a higher concentration of pure pigment. (In graphite pencils, the “lead” is not real lead either, but graphite)
-A Crayon is an implement for drawing made from clay, chalk,
graphite, dry color, and wax.
-There are two types of crayons: the coloring crayon and the chalk crayon.
The coloring crayon, or wax crayon, is the one used by most children in making pictures, but artists also use it. It consists of waxes such as paraffin, beeswax, and carnauba wax and dry colour.
-Some synthetic wax-like materials are also used in the modern crayon. The waxes are melted and the dry colour added with continuous mixing until thoroughly dispersed.
-Fine art chalk crayons come in various formulations, Ex. conté crayon, lithographic crayon, pastels.
-Normally, with both chalk and wax based, the crayon is entirely consumed during the marking process through abrasion.
-Pastels are pigments mixed with a binder. It is a medium in the form of a stick or crayon, consisting of powdered pigments and a binder. The pigments used in pastels are similar to those used to produce some other colored visual arts media, like oil paint, except the binder is typically much drier.
-The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process. Pastels have been used by artists since the Renaissance and gained popularity in the 18th and 19th centuries.
-See Mary Cassatt’s At the Theater, left, and notice the juxtaposition of the use of complementary hues, which add to the atmospheric quality of light produced in her pastel drawing.
Powdered Kool-Aid ingredients:
CITRIC ACID, CALCIUM PHOSPHATE, MALTODEXTRIN, CONTAINS LESS THAN 2% OF ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C), NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVOR, Contains Less than 2% of Artificial Flavor, Acesulfame Potassium (Sweetener), Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate, Red 40, colored dyes, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate (Preservatives)
-In his Untitled (Kool-Aid), 2003, conceptual artist David Hammons uses a staining technique to create a large-scale drawing with Kool-Aid. The soft drink has a very pale color and blends much the same as any water-based media. It’s not an archival medium, so along with it’s pop-culture status, and its ”consume-ability”, the fugitive nature of the work is also intrinsic or underlies its meaning.
-Color Film: daylight vs. tungsten
Films have different color spaces and are designed to work with a specific light source.
-Analog photographers used daylight-balanced film when they worked in daylight or with flash. Color film was designed for use in daylight or flash shows a distinct orange cast if used under tungsten lights.
Analog photographers used tungsten film when using studio or domestic tungsten lights. Tungsten film was designed to accurately represent colors as perceived by humans under tungsten light.
-The first color tattoos were Ancient Egyptian. Any tattoos prior were done in black. Based on artifacts and trinkets found from the Ancient eras, it is believed that Ancient Inuit and Ancient Romans also tattooed in color. The Inuit were especially fond of dark yellow tones.
-Color tattoos became fashionable in the 17th century Japan. Then tattooing stopped being thought of as a punishment and started to become seen as an art form. And color tattoos became fashionable in the USA and UK at the end of the 19th century. They only used very basic tattoo colors, as artworks show red, blue, yellow and greens were popular. The popularity of tattoo colors is connected to the advances to tattoo ink. www.savedtattoo.com/tattoo-colors/
-Tattoo inks may be made from titanium dioxide, lead, chromium, nickel, iron oxides, ash, carbon black, and other ingredients. Today some of the pigments are industrial grade and used as automobile paint.
-Sand painting is the art of pouring coloured sands, and powdered pigments from minerals or crystals, or pigments from other natural or synthetic sources onto a surface to make a fixed or unfixed sand painting.
-Powdered pigments* come from such materials as pulverized cedar charcoal, red sandstone, white gypsum, yellow ocher, pollen, cornmeal, and crushed flower petals. These paintings average about six feet square, though they range in size from a foot to twenty feet or more in diameter.
-Unfixed sand paintings have a long established cultural history in numerous social groupings around the globe, and are often temporary, ritual paintings prepared for religious or healing ceremonies. This form of art is also referred to as drypainting.
-Drypainting is practiced by Native Americans in the Southwestern United States, by Tibetan and Buddhist monks, as well as Indigenous Australians, and also by Latin Americans on certain Christian holy days. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandpainting
-Ceramic glazes need to include a ceramic flux which functions by promoting partial liquefaction in the clay bodies and the other glaze materials. Fluxes lower the high melting point of the glass forms silica, and sometimes boron trioxide. These glass forms may be included in the glaze materials, or may be drawn from the clay beneath.
-Raw materials of ceramic glazes generally include silica, which will be the main glass former. Various metal oxides, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, act as flux and therefore lower the melting temperature. Alumina, often derived from clay, stiffens the molten glaze to prevent it from running off the piece. -Colorants, such as iron oxide, copper carbonate, or cobalt carbonate, and sometimes opacifiers like tin oxide or zirconium oxide, are used to modify the visual appearance of the fired glaze.
-To create his Architectural Vessel, Rick Foris used a combination of wheel throwing and slab construction. The surface’s metallic luster comes from a sprayed copper matt glaze was created by raku processes, which oxidize the clay and bring out unique colors.
OCTOBER 2021- Research 1/3- Notes on Color Harmonies
- Every color has a related value, but no hue is as dark as black or as light as white.
Tints are the hue plus white.
Tones are the hue plus grey.
Shades are the hue plus black.
- Monochromic color is based on a single hue or color. Monochromatic palettes can be used for emotional impact. A red hue is still red whether the red is mixed with white or black. The three together, pink, red and red-black are an example of a monochromatic color palette.
- As a color is increasingly more saturated, it becomes brighter. As a color is increasingly less saturated, or as it is desaturated, it loses its color and becomes more of a gray or neutral color.
-Analogous colors are any three hues next to each other on the color wheel. For example: Red-violet, Red and Red-orange.
-Complementary colors are two hues exactly opposite each other on the color wheel. The use of complements intensifies the two hues and creates the figure-ground relationship. These are complementary color pairings:
Blue and Orange
Red and Green
Yellow and Violet
Blue-violet and orange-yellow
-Split Complementary Color Schemes have three colors, and two of them are located on either side of the first hues direct complement. For example, Blue, Red-Orange and Yellow-Orange is a split complementary color pairing.
-Double Split Complementary Color Schemes include four colors that are comprised of two sets of, typically side-by-side, complementary pairs. For example: Yellow, Yellow-Green, Violet, and Red-Violet is a split complementary color scheme.
-Neutrals a neutral color or shade, especially light gray or beige is achieved when a set of complements are mixed together. 20th C. artist Romare Bearden used neutrals to give a feeling of warmth to his painted collages like Early Morning.
-Triadic color schemes have three hues, all equal distance from one another on the color wheel. Yellow-Green, Blue-Violet and Red-Orange is one example of a triadic scheme. The three primaries, yellow, red and blue are the classic triadic scheme. To unify the pictorial elements in his paintings Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein often used a primary triadic color scheme...as he did in As I Opened Fire, 1964.
-Tetradic color schemes contain four hues are exactly equal distance from one another on the color wheel. Blue, Orange, Yellow-Green and Red-Orange is one of the tetradic schemes.
-The Bezold effect is an optical illusion, named after a German professor of meteorology, Wilhelm von Bezold (1837–1907), who discovered that a color may appear different depending on its relation to adjacent colors. It happens when small areas of color are interspersed.
-An assimilation effect called the von Bezold spreading effect, similar to spatial color mixing, is achieved.
-The opposite effect is observed when large areas of color are placed adjacent to each other, resulting in color contrast.
- The definition of simultaneous contrast: the tendency of a color to induce its opposite in hue, value and intensity upon an adjacent color and be mutually affected in return by the law of simultaneous contrast a light, dull red will make an adjacent dark, bright yellow seem darker, brighter and greener; in turn, the former will appear lighter, duller and bluer. www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/simu…
-Value Contrast refers to the amount of contrast between two areas of different value. It's the relationship between a light area and a dark area. There can be high contrast (a big difference between light and dark) and/or low contrast (not a big difference between the light and dark). One of the simplest ways to change the look of a color is to place it on a contrasting background. www.annamieka.com/blog/learning-about-v…
- Luminosity is a measure of how bright or dark a hue is. Physically, this is found in the amplitude and consequent energy of the electromagnetic waves of light. Luminosity is often measured as a percentage, ranging from zero (black) to 100% (full color). changingminds.org/explanations/percepti…
SEPTEMBER 2021- Reading Log Summary
The Fitzpatrick Scale*
The cumulative or overall effects of my digesting the required TT ORIENTATION and SESSION 10 METHODOLOGIES readings (videos and texts), especially viewing The Room of Silence, which I did first, and Hartman’s Venus in Two Acts, Holman Jones’ Creative Selves, Creative Cultures, Critical Auto-ethnography Performance and Pedagogy, and Baldwin’s Creative Process, I am for the first time in my life, feeling able to begin to articulate the beginnings of what I now might call my auto-ethnography.
An impulse to undertake this is has been vaguely floating in my mind over the past few years. What I am thinking about as a kind of self-redefinition or expanded self-understanding could potentially be summed up in a word that has been bobbing in and out of my thoughts during the past few months, which is liminality. I am thinking about how liminal pertains to my ethnic heritage.
Note: On the Fitzpatrick Scale* my skin tone is between a Type III, Medium White to Olive and a Type IV, Olive Moderate Brown. I think it's curious how there is no simply "olive" option. ??? LOL. Also reference: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Luschan%27s_c…
And its historical antecedent: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropometry
Seriously though, this maybe the most baffling simultaneously inspiring and curious history of chart making/data compiling I have run across in this new-to-me-this-year (2021) body of (personal/studio vs. teaching/academic) research. I intend to delve more deeply into it, both in my studio and here.
Side note: I had a similar self re-defining or self-clarifying experience immediately after giving birth to my daughter a few decades ago. Only then it was with my feminist self. That is the last time I was so immersed in such a personal and simultaneously academic self-re-definition. It changed my orientation not only to myself, but also how I live and perceive life, the world, history, etc. And maybe this self-expansion will not be as dramatic, but it might be.
A factor during these recent few years…something influencing or instigating some of this, is my learning about my scientific DNA composition…during early 2018. I grew up thinking of myself as predominantly Italian America, with some Greek (via my Italian immigrant maternal grandfather, who was named Domenico Filia…(through an uncle we learned that that Domenico had some Greek ancestry, which matches the Greek origins of his last name), and some Eastern European ancestry…that via one of my paternal great-grandmother Angeline Toman's immigration documents reveal along with stories about her that my grandmother told.
Also influencing this is the recent release of my writer brother Russell Shorto’s book, Smalltime, which is to a great extent about our paternal grandfather, and about his parents’ immigration to the US. Joe Heim of the Washington Post, Outlook, Review stated in his Feb. 12, 2021 column “… Shorto’s story is not just about his family. It’s also a social history of a place and time — industrial Pennsylvania from the early 20th century on — as it is being shaped by an influx of immigrants who are resented for their arrival, forced into the worst jobs and homes, and struggling to survive outside of an official America that makes their path harder at every opportunity.”
And, as mentioned in my reading log on The Room of Silence, hearing from others throughout my life how I appear “exotic” plus countless other similarly perplexing if not alienating comments (ex. Because of some of my physical features, to some I appear “blended”, and many have ask me if I am “mixed”, or “both”, or what ethnicity I am…then they proceed to guess.)
These kinds of life experiences, along with my 23&me DNA test results, which scientifically confirm that I do not qualify as what our still Euro-centric (or Anglo-centric) world considers white. As I have never been treated as fully white, I have never felt fully white. Nor I am considered by those with brown or black skin, who consider themselves “people of color” to be a “person of color.” My skin color is not “portrait pink” (paint color name), nor is it brown or black. It is sallow-y or olive-y… a typically Mediterranean skin color. Partly as a result of that, I have never self-described as a person of color either.
The DNA testing I mentioned indicates that scientifically, my composition is:
78.6% Southern European (= 60.7% Italian + 14.2% Greek & Balkan
+ 3.7% Broadly Southern European)
8.2% Eastern European
0.2% Ashkenazi Jewish
0.1% Broadly European
12.5% Western Asian/North African (= 3.9% Iranian Caucasian and Mesopotamian + 2.9% Cypriot + 3.4% Broadly Northwest Asian)
0.6% North African
0.4% Coptic Egyptian
1.3% Broadly Western Asian & North African
0.1% Trace Ancestry (Senegambian & Guinean)
While my ethnic and cultural upbringing…this part of my self-identity, is majority Italian American, (very little cultural deference was paid to my Eastern European immigrant great-grandmother's ethnicity or heritage), and much of this matches my DNA test results, yet there was/is a surprise-to-me scientific data showing 12.5% of my DNA is Western Asian/North African. This revelation is another contributing factor in my shifting, expanding self-awareness.
Though my Sicilian and Eastern European immigrant great-grandparents and my Italian immigrant grandfather were, I do not feel nor do I claim to be, an ethnic outlier. I may consider this new found state of “liminality”, not a marginalization, but a lever into an ethnically neutral zone. As an artist and as a human being, I regard most states of neutrality an advantage… so I am thinking that this is either neutralizing or potentially advantageous.
When I feel myself as neutral or liminal, as an in-between "ethnic" person, it allows me to also consider the possibility of myself as a gender-liminal person...as in my feminine/masculine energy balance is about 50-50. And while I do fully inhabit a cis female body, and gladly use she/her pronouns, on an energetic level, I am equally feminine/masculine. It allows me to exist in a gender- balanced or gender-neutral space. And I further consider myself in terms of my spirituality…as spirit, ruach (living breath). In this respect, are we not all identity-marker neutral? This is a kind of liminality too, right?
And while I have peripherally been thinking of some of these things, focusing on it, in the context of a sense of liminality, my in-between-ness, in my studio practice this coming semester or two, just in the course of reading these pieces, I consider focusing my painting on a kind of liminality, particularly in relationship to my ethnicity...and that within my larger proposed color project.
For providing the insight and inspiration through all of the very engaging, intellectually and emotionally stimulating material, I thank all of the TT faculty. I am grateful for how generous you all are.
*The Fitzpatrick scale (also Fitzpatrick skin typing test; or Fitzpatrick phototyping scale) is a numerical classification schema for human skin color. It was developed in 1975 by American dermatologist Thomas B. Fitzpatrick as a way to estimate the response of different types of skin to ultraviolet (UV) light. It was initially developed on the basis of skin color to measure the correct dose of UVA for PUVA therapy, and when the initial testing based only on hair and eye colour resulted in too high UVA doses for some, it was altered to be based on the patient's reports of how their skin responds to the sun; it was also extended to a wider range of skin types. The Fitzpatrick scale remains a recognized tool for dermatological research into human skin pigmentation.
The following list shows the six categories of the Fitzpatrick scale in relation to the 36 categories of the older von Luschan scale (in parenthesis):
Type I (scores 0–6) always burns, never tans (palest; freckles)
Type II (scores 7–13) usually burns, tans minimally (light colored but darker than fair)
Type III (scores 14–20) sometimes mild burn, tans uniformly (golden honey or olive)
Type IV (scores 21–27) burns minimally, always tans well (moderate brown)
Type V (scores 28–34) very rarely burns, tans very easily (dark brown)
Type VI (scores 35–36) never burns (deeply pigmented dark brown to darkest brown)
SEPTEMBER 2021- Reading Log 4/4- Session 10: METHODOLOGIES AUTO ETHNOGRAPHY- 2 In-class Assignments
Baird Hersey, waking the cobra, 1999, CD cover art by Lisa Malone
Following a "Listen/Hear/Interview" writing exercise, I received this email from a fellow PhD candidate who had interviewed me during class.
Thank you for your generosity and open sharing. This is my gift to you on listening and hearing.
It was wonderful to notice that so many of your auditory memories relate to important men in your life, and how you have created space for music all around you. The tenderness of your father, and how your descriptions of his sounds opened other sensory memories of his smell. And of how he filled the house with music, an act which has continued with the men you have chosen to spend your life with. There is a beauty in seeing that continuation, and your joy in that.
It was an interesting shift with the talk about dreams, as the sounds became more wild and less welcoming with the sound of a rabid wolf, yet there is still something so lovely about the poetry of, "you're a healthy piece of fiction". I think of the holistic effect of stories, and the protection we can carve out for ourselves with our personal stories.
Thank you for sharing these insights.
In gratitude and solidarity,
In another of the many wonderful in-class discussions and exercises, we received prompts and wrote. My response to one of the prompts:
All of A Piece
Though introvert-me is comfortable with and even enjoys aspects of the pandemic induced home-confinement, and meditator-me is grateful for time and space to sit in a “neutral” zone...to be with things like my primal fear... at the same time claustrophobe-me struggles with an on-going sense of anxiety over the loss of freedom to move about the world, which apparently I had taken for granted.
And since I desire to regain that sense of freedom, I am perplexed by the 30+ percent of the US population resisting any version of a CoVid vaccination. I try to comprehend what they are “thinking” or what they are reacting to, or against…? I also struggle with not judging that choice, because when I do think of it, I find myself judging it an unwise and selfish one.
Another bit of pandemic collateral damage was a move out of my creative community, which for years prior to CoVid, I had enjoyed with about 80 other New York City artists at Midtown Manhattan’s Elizabeth Foundation studios. At this moment, it occurs to me that this may have been one of the main catalysts for writing my Transart application/project earlier this year. That I was accepted and am becoming part of a fabulous new group of creatives, is surely the great big silver lining in that particular cloud.
Speaking of clouds, since my early childhood I have been learning about and anticipating that we were all going to be more responsible stewards of our earth and its resources...develop and use solar, wind and other viable, sustainable power sources. It mystifies me that most of the world, US included, is still not taking aggressive action to stop our deadly overuse of fossil fuels, on-going cultivation and over-consumption of live-stock, and other crisis producing practices.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Reading Log 3/4- Session 10: METHODOLOGIES- Sunday 26 SEPT 2021- AUTOETHNOGRAPHY– PERSONAL AND POLITICAL IN RESEARCH CONTEXT A WORKSHOP WITH ELENA MARCHEVESKA
Jim Dine, |Study for Two Venuses| detail, cast bronze, 1983
1. Hartman, S. (2008). Venus in Two Acts. Small Axe 12(2), 1-14. www.muse.jhu.edu/article/241115
This is a brutal, beautiful, brilliant piece of writing. Wow… after a young black southern woman named Brianna Taylor was brutally shot and murdered by police who raided her apartment at night while she slept, in the US, say her name became a national mantra…this comes to my mind as soon as I start reading Saidiya Hartman’s Venus in Two Acts.
Hartman writes her name, Venus, which is the transformational act. Not believing that it is enough, she imagines “out loud” what stories she would like to write. This allows her to leave the historical accounts, which are woefully lacking in too many ways to list, and infuriatingly unjust in every way) intact…all important to the writing of a history writer.
Ex. “Initially I thought I wanted to represent the affiliations severed and remade in the hollow of the slave ship by imagining the two girls as friends, by giving them one another. But in the end I was forced to admit that I wanted to console myself and to escape the slave hold with a vision of something other than the bodies of two girls settling on the floor of the Atlantic.”
And then similarly, Hartman weaves her ideas (or temptations to have ideas) for stories that she might like to create about the black Venus/es by denying herself out loud too.
Ex. “In the end, I could say no more about Venus than I had said about her friend: “I am unsure if it is possible to salvage an existence from a handful of words: the supposed murder of a negro girl.” …I could not change anything: “The girl” never will have any existence outside the precarious domicile of words’ that allowed her to be murdered.
…I could not have arrived at another conclusion. So it was better to leave them as I had found them. Two girls, alone.”
Then in “The Reprise” Hartman explains herself, “I chose not to tell a story about Venus because to do so would have trespassed the boundaries of the archive. History pledges to be faithful to the limits of fact, evidence, and archive, even as those dead certainties are produced by terror.”
And, again out loud, Hartman questions herself too… “By retreating from the story of these two girls, was I simply upholding the rules of the historical guild and the “manufactured certainties” of their killers, and by doing so, hadn’t I sealed their fate? Hadn’t I too consigned them to oblivion? In the end, was it better to leave them as I found them?”
She goes on to question why we (all) want to tell untold stories, stories that are not retrievable, stories so woefully archived, barely footnoted. This brings to mind that we ought to each be doing past life regression therapy, and writing/recording each memory retrieved. I reason this will simultaneously assist us in retrieving our untold stories/histories. The body knows…our bodies and minds remember it all…every detail.
When Hartman writes, “My account replicates the very order of violence that it writes against by placing yet another demand upon the girl, by requiring that her life be made useful or instructive, by finding in it a lesson for our future or a hope for history. We all know better. It is much too late for the accounts of death to prevent other deaths; and it is much too early for such scenes of death to halt other crimes. But in the meantime, in the space of the interval, between too late and too early, between the no longer and the not yet, our lives are coeval with the girl’s in the as-yet-incomplete project of freedom. In the meantime, it is clear that her life and ours hang in the balance”…and later, “… we too emerge from the encounter with a sense of incompleteness and with the recognition that some part of the self is missing as a consequence of this engagement…” she confirms a pressing sense that we must do something, take some kind of action to change our (humanity’s) trajectory…even if we simply "say her name".
2. Holman Jones S. (2018) Creative Selves/Creative Cultures: Critical Autoethnography, Perfor-mance, and Pedagogy. In: Holman Jones S., Pruyn M. (eds) Creative Selves / Creative Cultures. Creativity, Education and the Arts. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47527-1_1
When Stacy Holman Jones writes “As arts-based and practice-led scholars, we aimed to explore what critical autoethnography and performance in particular have to teach us about creativity and pedagogy (which includes formal educational contexts alongside the broader concerns of public pedagogy and creativity education). We approached our work with the aim of joining the explanatory power of critical theory and inquiry with creative, specific, aesthetically engaging, and personal examples of the ideas at work—in cultural context, in practice, in people’s lives.
The result is a collection of essays that we believe fills a much-needed gap in creativity and education by providing you, our readers, with work that demonstrates how critical autoethnography offers researchers and scholars in multiple disciplines not only a method for creatively putting critical theory into action, but also a means for forging more creative selves and creative cultures in a time when neoliberal discourses and the forces of globalization are working against (while trying to capitalize on) the cohering and enlarging of both self and world.”…is she saying she is anti-globalist? Anti-neo-liberal?
She addresses her main question, “What is critical autoethnography and why is it an innovative and educative approach for building, understanding, and transforming creative selves and cultures?...with a definition…”Critical autoethnography is, most simply, the study and critique of culture through the lens of the self. Critical autoethnography merges the practices of autobiography—writing about the self—and ethnography—the study of and writing about culture. Critical autoethnography is a thoroughly qualitative and intimate method in that it provides us with nuanced, complex, and specific insights into particular human lives, experiences, and relationships. Where quantitative approaches to research give us general insights into the cultures and experiences of large groups of people, telling us about the who, what, when, and where of life, critical autoethnography teaches us about the why and how and so what of those lives.”
And she continues… “Critical autoethnography helps us create ‘living bodies of thought’—work that uses story to bring theory alive and shows us how stories are embodiments of knowledges that can and do create movement and change in the world (Holman Jones, 2016 ). As “an embodied method,” critical autoethnography “articulates and makes material what is and should be” (Spry, 2016 , p. 34). In other words, critical autoethnography critically imagines a future world through the very performance of other ways of living, being, and becoming.”
Holman Jones makes a case for performative autoethnography throughout the rest of the piece…“A performative approach to autoethnography foregrounds five intersecting commitments: focusing on embodiment, valuing diverse forms of knowledge, creating relationships, highlighting the affective and emotional in narratives of experience, and seeking change.”…and she continues, “Critical autoethographers, particularly those working in and through the method and lens of performance, embrace, rather than erase embodiment; we make the body the “nexus of meaning-making”—the source of the stories, movements, and speech that is created in the ethnographic exchange (Spry, 2016 , p. 35). Indeed, as Spry notes, “All research ultimately, pragmatically, brutally emanates from a corporeal body that exists within a sociopolitical context” (2016 , p. 37).
I think of the works of Adrian Piper, Laurie Anderson, Marina Abramovic, Venessa Beecroft and others. Am I on the right track with this?
“…our work is our shared and communal effort to “understand the human as a relational and social being, one whose action depends on equality” (Butler, 2015 , p. 88).”
Holman Jones essentially states that we are literally “bodies of knowledge”… (the best idea of the piece)… speaking with one another vs. speaking for the “other”… “critical autoethnography is not, as some assert, ‘me-search,’ nor is it a means for a “single and unified subject [to] declare its will” (Butler, 2015 , p. 156). Rather, autoethnography is interested and invested in assembling a we —a clutch of listeners and speakers— who, before uttering any words, are already enacting (and speaking) a collective and popular ‘will. And what is the collective will in critical autoethnography? It is the will to connect, to be in conversation with each other and in the world.”
3. Mignolo WD. Epistemic Disobedience, Independent Thought and Decolonial Freedom. Theory, Culture & Society. 2009;26(7-8):159-181. doi:10.1177/0263276409349275
While reading Walter D. Mignolo’s piece, I keep thinking about Hélène Cixous and other poststructuralist feminist theorists... In Cixous 1975 article "Le rire de la méduse" ("The Laugh of the Medusa" 1976 in English). Cixous and Luce Irigaray combined Derrida's logocentric idea and Lacan's symbol for desire, creating the term phallogocentrism. They share Derrida's phallogocentric reading of 'all of Western metaphysics'. For example, Catherine Clément and Hélène Cixous in "The Newly Born Woman" (1975) decry the "dual, hierarchical oppositions" set up by the traditional phallogocentric philosophy of determinateness, wherein "death is always at work" as "the premise of woman's abasement", woman who has been "colonized" by phallogocentric thinking. According to Cixous and Clément, the 'crumbling' of this way of thinking will take place through a Derridean-inspired, anti-phallo/logocentric philosophy of indeterminateness. (Wikipedia)
I think it may be helpful in solving some of the issues of racism, which, as with sexism, and most other forms of oppression, are in part, linguistically based problems. Overall, it’s such a dense read. For me, these are some of the most interesting parts:
…“If you are getting the idea of what shifting the geography of reason and enacting geo-politics of knowledge means, you will also be understanding what the decolonial option in general (or decolonial options in each particular and local history) means. It means, in the first place, to engage in epistemic disobedience, as is clear in the three examples I offered. Epistemic disobedience is necessary to take on civil disobedience (Gandhi, Martin Luther King) to its point of non-return. Civil disobedience, within modern Western epistemology (and remember: Greek and Latin, and six vernacular European modern and imperial languages), could only lead to reforms, not to transformations...”
…pg 174 “The differences between bio-politics in Europe and bio-politics in the colonies lie in the racial distinction between the European population (even when bio-politically managed by the state) and the population of the colonies: less human, subhumans, as Smith pointed out. But it is also important to remember that bio-political techniques enacted on colonial populations returned as a boomerang to Europe in the Holocaust. Many have already underlined the uses of colonial techniques applied to non-European populations to control and exterminate the Jewish population...
Thus, body-politics is the darker side and the missing half of biopolitics: body-politics describes decolonial technologies enacted by bodies who realized that they were considered less human at the moment they realized that the very act of describing them as less human was a radical un-human consideration… Body-politics is a fundamental component of decolonial thinking, decolonial doing and the decolonial option.
Historically, geo-politics of knowledge emerged in the ‘Third World’ contesting the imperial distribution of scientific labor that Pletsch mapped out. Body-politics of knowledge has had its more pronounced manifestations in the United States, as a consequence of the Civil Rights movement. Who were the main actors of the body-politics of knowledge? Women – first white women, soon joined by women of color (and linking with geo-politics, so-called ‘Third World women’); Latino and Latina scholars and activists; Afro-Americans and Native Americans, mainly.”
Pg 177… “Theo- and ego-politics of knowledge also bracketed the body in knowledge- making (Mignolo, 2007a). By locating knowledge in the mind only, and bracketing ‘secondary qualities’ (affects, emotions, desires, anger, humiliation, etc.), social actors who happened to be white, inhabiting Europe/Western Christendom and speaking specific languages assumed that what was right for them in that place and which fulfilled their affects, emotions, fears and angers was indeed valid for the rest of the planet and, consequently, that they were the depositor, warrantor, creator and distributor of universal knowledge.”
Pg 178… “Racism, as we sense it today, was the result of two conceptual inventions of imperial knowledge: that certain bodies were inferior to others, and that inferior bodies carried inferior intelligence. The emergence of a body-politics of knowledge is a second strand of decolonial thinking and the decolonial option.
Decolonial thinking presupposes de-linking (epistemically and politically) from the web of imperial knowledge (theo- and ego-politically grounded) from disciplinary management. A common topic of conversation today, after the financial crisis on Wall Street, is ‘how to save capitalism’. A decolonial question would be: ‘Why would you want to save capitalism and not save human beings? Why save an abstract entity and not the human lives that capitalism is constantly destroying?’ …In the ‘politics of life in itself’ political and economic strategies for controlling life at the same time as creating more consumers join forces...
This is the point where decolonial options, grounded in geo- and bodypolitics of knowledge, engage in both decolonizing knowledge and de -colonial knowledge-making, delinking from the web of imperial/modern knowledge and from the colonial matrix of power.”
SEPTEMBER 2021- Reading Log 2/4- Sesssion 10: METHODOLOGIES- SATURDAY, 25 SEPT 2021- RESEARCH STUDIO FOR THE ARTIST- A WORKSHOP WITH Abbéy Odunlami
1. In "The Creative Process", James Baldwin (from Creative America, Ridge Press, 1962), writes on the existentialist topic of being…on “The state of being alone” and more specifically on the plight of the artist’s state of being essentially, even more alone than other members of society or a community.
Baldwin is funny and fatalistic throughout…ex. “It is for this reason that all societies have battled with the incorrigible disturber of the peace—the artist. I doubt that future societies will get on with him any better.”…
His theme of salvation is revealed in statements like: “And a higher level of consciousness among the people is the only hope we have, now or in the future, of minimizing human damage.”
He places his own hopes in “The artist (who) is distinguished from all other responsible actors in society—the politicians, legislators, educators, and scientists—by the fact that he is his own test tube, his own laboratory, working according to very rigorous rules, however unstated these may be, and cannot allow any consideration to supersede his responsibility to reveal all that he can possibly discover concerning the mystery of the human being...”
“I am really trying to make clear the nature of the artist’s responsibility to his society. The peculiar nature of this responsibility is that he must never cease warring with it, for its sake and for his own. For the truth, in spite of appearances and all our hopes, is that everything is always changing and the measure of our maturity as nations and as men is how well prepared we are to meet these changes, and further, to use them for our health.”
I think about this a lot…that nothing is ever fixed. I think about how we are in constant motion on our earth, which is like a living, spinning bead in the solar system that’s endlessly twirls around the sun. And about how our cosmic ooze flies through space at unimaginable speeds. (The sun and the solar system appear to be moving at 200 kilometers per second, or at an average speed of 448,000 mph (720,000 km/h). Even at this rapid speed, the solar system would take about 230 million years to travel all the way around the Milky Way. www.space.com)
“That nation is healthiest which has the least necessity to distrust or ostracize these people—whom, as I say, honor, once they are gone, because somewhere in our hearts we know that we cannot live without them.”
“…the aloneness in which one discovers that life is tragic, and therefore unutterably beautiful—could not be permitted….Societies never know it, but the war of an artist with his society is a lover’s war, and he does, at his best, what lovers do, which is to reveal the beloved to himself and, with that revelation, to make freedom real.”
I see Baldwin as almost a mystic... at least he acknowledges the mystical role artists have in their societies. He’s genius, and a real poetic thinker/writer.
2. The Artist as Producer in Times of Crisis, by Okwui Enwezor
Enwezor considers if questions raised in 1932 by Georg Lukács (“The conditions of production of the time was the struggle between capitalism and socialism as the driving force behind modern subjectivity.”) and in 1934 by Walter Benjamin (…to what degree does political awareness in a work of art becomes a tool for the deracination of the autonomy of the work and that of the author? And "What is the attitude of a work to the relations of production of its time?") are, in the context of the 21st Century’s critical context of contemporary culture…with a focus on “…(art) work driven by the spirit of activism…” still relevant.
Enwezor also asks “Is the collectivization of artistic production not a critique of the poverty of the language of contemporary art in the face of large scale commodifications of culture which have merged the identity of the artist with the corporate logo of global capitalism? …Is he thinking of collaborations like the Warhol-Basquiat paintings?
Enwezor differentiates between two kinds of collaborations, one he states “…can be summarized as possessing a structured modus vivendi based on permanent, fixed groupings of practitioners working over a sustained period. In such collectives, authorship represents the expression of the group rather than that of the individual artist.” (Ex. Based on Middle Ages collectives that constructed Romanesque and Gothic Cathedrals…Modern architects, builders, artisans for example involved in constructing the “new” Renaissance Vatican?). And “The second type of collectives tend to emphasize a flexible, non-permanent course of affiliation, privileging collaboration on project basis than on a permanent alliance. This type of collective formation can be designated as networked collectives. Such networks are far more prevalent today due to radical advances in communication technologies and globalization. (Like in the The Dinner Party, produced from 1974 to 1979 as a collaboration, (but directed by and authorship is given to Judy Chicago)?
3. Theory of the Dérive - Guy Debord
One of the basic situationist practices is the dérive [literally: “drifting”], a technique of rapid passage through varied ambiances. Dérives involve playful-constructive behavior and awareness of psychogeographical effects, and are thus quite different from the classic notions of journey or stroll.
In his study Paris et l’agglomération Parisienne (Bibliotheque de Sociologie Contemporaine, P.U.F., 1952) Chombart de Lauwe notes that “an urban neighborhood is determined not only by geographical and economic factors, but also by the image that its inhabitants and those of other neighborhoods have of it.” In the same work, in order to illustrate “the narrowness of the real Paris in which each individual lives… within a geographical area whose radius is extremely small,” he diagrams all the movements made in the space of one year by a student living in the 16th Arrondissement. Her itinerary forms a small triangle with no significant deviations, the three apexes of which are the School of Political Sciences, her residence and that of her piano teacher. (Seems like de Lauwe may have stalked this student…?)
“One can dérive alone, but all indications are that the most fruitful numerical arrangement consists of several small groups of two or three people who have reached the same level of awareness, since cross-checking these different groups’ impressions makes it possible to arrive at more objective conclusions.”
I love the term psychogeographical urbanism
Derive alone...Are Adrian Piper’s 1970’s street performance works (conceptual, socially “interactive”, identity based) examples of solo derives?
Or are derives actually “pass times” and/or “great games” as Debord states, and not conceptual (art)?
Derive in small groups... Do Alan Kaprow’s 1950’s outdoor happenings count, or were they “too large” and because often a loose concept pre-existed, do they not qualify?
4. James Elkins (School of the Art Institute Chicago | Chicago, USA) "What is Research?" Keynote speech of the conference "Black Mountain - Educational Turn and the Avantgarde" at Hamburger Bahnhof – Museum für Gegenwart – Berlin on the 25 and 26/09/ 2015. www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VgOOMn93NM
Elkins discusses the rise of the practice based PhD program in the Western world and in Japan, and the issues surrounding the quantification of creative expression (artwork). Ex. He references assessment models that science based education uses/applies and how they do not readily work with practice based knowledge. He discussed is the linguistics of creative products/art, the H-index, and referenced the Bologna Process.
H-index, sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number…
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bologna_Process
My overarching question/thought is regarding Elkins talk is that if we via post-structuralism determined that all naturally existing and created phenomena are language, or elements of language, then does it not stand to reason that if experience is what brings language into knowledge, then all experienced or lived phenomena, creative experiences included, is also knowledge?
SEPTEMBER 2021- Reading Log 1/4- Orientation 2: CRITIQUING THE CRITIQUE WITH JEAN MARIE CASBARIAN
1. The Room of Silence (students from Rhode Island School of Design) vimeo.com/161259012
As I watched The Room of Silence, I thought of most of my students. I teach studio art…painting, drawing and color theory, at City University of New York’s Lehman College, which has a majority Hispanic student population. The campus is also 68-74% female, most of whom are either immigrant or 1st generation American. At CUNY, economic standing, race and/or minority ethnic populations, including Hispanic, are by NY State law, protected against discrimination. And I kept thinking that surely, in at least some of their critiques, hopefully not in my classroom, my students have had similar or identical experiences.
And, full disclosure, my own CUNY ethnic status is a listed “protected” class… I am a 2nd generation Italian American. Two of my maternal great-grandparents and one maternal grandfather were late 19th C.- early 20th C. Italian immigrants. And two of my paternal great-grandparents were early 20th C. Sicilian immigrants.
So watching, listening to, and hearing The Room of Silence students speak on their classroom and life experiences not only gave me empathy for my own students, but it also caused me to re-visit my own ethnic heritage. Some of what I consider has been brewing in me at some level my whole life, but now on a more conscious level for the past few years. It was one specific Room of Silence student’s comment re: people referring to her as “exotic”, that went off like a bell that rang true for me too. Like the student who recounted it, I never experienced it as a complement either…but nor have I exactly heard is as an intended slight.
2. “Observations on forms and patterns of critique”, Judith Leehman 2004
Leehman discusses a couple of older, harsh if not cruel methods of critiquing artwork, as well as a couple of revised, much more productive models. I especially appreciated the encouragement to speak up and change the direction if a critique is not going well… if you feel it is something you will need to recover from. LOL. As an MFA student, I had a couple of those kinds of critiques. I try to host zero that go that direction for my own students. Also very helpful is her mention writing about a critique participant locating their physical response as the critique was happening. From that, the participant was able to change a negative, or destructive situation into a more productive one. (Our bodies and our senses know.)
3. “Feldman’s Model of Art Criticism”- From the work of Edmund Burke Feldman, available in many of his books from the late 1060’s and early 70’s
This is an early form of what I learned is a “critique card”. I was introduced to a version of it in the 2000’s by two young art department colleagues who came by it and employed it as an ASSESSMENT tool. C. 2010 I adopted and use it in my own studio classroom critiques. I have made my own customized versions, a handful for intro painting, a handful for intro drawing and one for color theory. The critique card as I use it allows students to gather, in-class, informal written ideas, so they feel and are prepared to speak informally on a fellow student’s work. Note, my version recommends the one doing the critiquing point out what they view the most successful aspect of a piece to be, and to also state something, in their view that the student artist can improve upon.
SEPTEMBER 2021- Studio Practice 2/2- Orientation 1: WITH THE BODY
Gina Dominique, "A Column of Red Lines From Using-Materials-of-Your-Choosing-Make-and-Repeat-for-2-minutes-A-Single-Gesture" detail page 4, Watercolor on sketchbook paper, 24 Sep 2021
SEPTEMBER 2021- Studio Practice 1/2- Orientation 1: WITH THE BODY
Gina Dominique, Blue Serpentine Line detail, watercolor on paper, 8.5 x 11", 2021
My September 2021 studio work involved making several watercolor studies during the Transart orientation Orientation- WITH THE BODY-A PREPARATORY MOVEMENT PRACTICE FOR ARTISTS WITH KATE HILLIARD, including the above posted sketches. And my research studio revolved around my PhD ChromaTheory topic, as well as preparing and posting to my Bb course site two online slide lectures for my Relativity of Color course. Summaries of my research notes for my first two lectures and a couple of accompanying images are posted...scroll down:
SEPTEMBER 2021- Research 2/2- Notes on Color Psychology
Francesco Clemente, 1952-, Ritz detail, watercolor on paper, 1983
- Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior. Color influences perceptions that are not obvious, such as the taste of food. Colors have qualities that can cause certain emotions in people. Colors can also enhance the effectiveness of placebos. For example, red or orange pills are generally used as stimulants. How color influences individuals may differ depending on age, gender, and culture. For instance, heterosexual men tend to report that red outfits enhance female attractiveness, while heterosexual females deny any outfit color impacting that of men. Although color associations can vary contextually between cultures, color preference is to be relatively uniform across gender and race. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology
- According to some evidence, humans started developing blue colorants 5,000 years ago. The semi-precious stone Lapis Lazuli, a deep-blue metamorphic rock, was highly prized among the Egyptians. - In the European and Western world, the concept of the color blue comes from the painted robes of the Virgin Mary. All of her attributes of honesty, truth, and goodness have been transformed into navy blue.
- During the Renaissance, this bright blue mineral was often combined with other ingredients, which led to development of the pigment Ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. Afterwards, blue dyes were spread throughout the world.
- The psychology of color blue is non-confrontational; it promotes peace and tranquility. Some of the descriptions for color blue include calmness and serenity. Blue is often described as peaceful, tranquil, and even orderly. This may be due to our perception of oceans as blue. For some people, blue can appear as a mentally soothing color.
- Surveys show that blue is the least appetizing color as well, which explains why some weight loss plans suggest eating food of a blue plate. It is found that blue lowers blood pressure, thus, slows down heart rate, because of which a body becomes relaxed.
- United Nations’ peacekeeping forces wear a light blue uniform. This color does not have the authority or militaristic connotations of navy blue.
- The "rose of temperaments" (Temperamenten-Rose) compiled by Goethe and Schiller in 1798/9. The diagram matches twelve colors to human occupations or their character traits, grouped in the four temperaments: * choleric (red/orange/yellow): tyrants, heroes, adventurers * sanguine (yellow/green/cyan) hedonists, lovers, poets * phlegmatic (cyan/blue/violet): public speakers, historians * melancholic (violet/magenta/red): philosophers, pedants, rulers.
- Wassily Kandinsky’s work seems to come alive with color, and a lot of this is due to his deep, detailed understanding of color’s meaning. Kandinsky viewed color in a synesthetic way. That is, he would associate certain colors with musical tones or even certain shapes.
- Kandinsky taught at the Bauhaus from 1922 until its closure in 1933, but his interest in color and its effects on people began long before that. Kandinsky’s 1910 book, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, takes the reader through different colors and Kandinsky’s perceptions about them. About green, Kandinsky writes, “I could compare completely green with a calm, broaching, middle tones of a violin.” He connects the color white to a musical pause: “The white color affects our psyche as a great silence, which is for us absolutely. Internally, it sounds like a no-sound, which quite closely matches a pause in the music. This silence is not dead, it is full of possibilities.”
- The Bauhaus movement was set apart by its close examination of color (among other things), and Kandinsky’s teaching built upon Itten’s connection of color to mood and feeling. Kandinsky’s synesthetic view of color mirrored some of Paul Klee’s color theory, too.
- The "Land effect”, is the capacity to see full color (if muted) images solely by looking at a photo with red and gray wavelengths. The effect was discovered by Edwin H. Land, who was attempting to reconstruct James Clerk Maxwell's early experiments in full-colored images. Land realized that, even when there were no green or blue wavelengths present in an image, the visual system would still perceive them as green or blue by discounting the red illumination. Land described this effect in a 1959 article in Scientific American.
- In 1977, Land wrote another Scientific American article that formulated his "retinex theory" to explain the Land effect. The word "retinex" is a portmanteau formed from "retina" and "cortex", suggesting that both the eye and the brain are involved in the processing. Land, with John McCann, also developed a computer program designed to imitate the retinex processes taking place in human physiology. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_constancy
- The color green seems to make positive emotions stronger and negative emotions weaker. White and pink may have similar effects, but researchers are still studying those. Meanwhile, the color red seems to have the opposite effect and make negative emotions -- like those linked to failure and danger -- more intense. The color green can help get the creative juices flowing. Scientists compared it with white, gray, red, and blue, and green helped people do better with both word-based and picture-based activities. So if you’re looking for a new color for your office walls, think green.
- You may be happier and less tired after you exercise around the color green. It makes sense then that people who exercise outside, where there’s more green, feel better. And having more “green space” where you live tends to boost your mental health. |https://www.webmd.com/balance/ss/slideshow-colors-affect-you}|
- We recognize a product by its color, before we read its label. Color psychology is also widely used in marketing and branding. Marketers see color as important, as color can influence a consumers' emotions and perceptions about goods and services. Logos for companies are important, since the logos can attract more customers. This happens when customers believe the company logo matches the personality of the goods and services, such as the color pink heavily used on Victoria's Secret branding. Colors are also important for window displays in stores. Research shows that colors such as red tended to attract spontaneous purchasers, despite cool colors such as blue being more favorable. Red and yellow, as a combination, can stimulate hunger, which may help to explain, in part, the success of fast-food restaurants such as McDonald's, Burger King, and In-N-Out Burger. The phenomenon has been referred to as the "ketchup & mustard" theory. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology
- Portia Munson’s works reflects the deep social conditioning regarding color preference that people undergo daily. From a young age, Munson has been collecting plastics from landfills, swap shops and yard sales to delineate them in a way that challenges what it means to be a woman and a citizen of planet Earth. Her work consistently explores the meaning of color, the destruction of nature and the definition of femininity through installations, mandalas and still life paintings.
- Munson says she works to make something ‘beautiful and disturbing” out of the items she finds and the way that she pieces and places these items together continuously touch on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals of Gender Equality, Responsible Consumption and Production and Climate Action.Using her lifetime collection of plastics and waste, Munson has been releasing and reforming her series the Pink Project, which was originally conceived in 1994 to redefine femininity through garbage.
-There was a renewed interest in the use of color for its expressive and emotional qualities in the 1980. The Neo-Expressionist movement in Italy was also known as the Italian Transavanguardia and one of its leading artists was Francesco Clemente.
-Similar to other Neo-Expressionists, Francesco Clemente’s work also contained much of a relation to sexuality, raw emotions, and even brutality. He depicts a dark side of humanity, usually unspoken and held back. In his paintings, Clemente incorporates some visual elements of Surrealism, as well as the signs and symbols of other cultures, such as Hindu spiritualism in India, or the Candomble religion of Brazil.
- Art critics throughout the 1980s claimed him to be the most articulate among other Neo-Expressionists. He was the one with the simplest technique and the most international references. Today, Clemente continues to explore individual identity, constantly questioning the idea of oneself. www.widewalls.ch/magazine/neo-expressio…
SEPTEMBER 2021- Research 1/2- Notes on the History of Color Theory
- Every culture has its own concept of color and color usage.
- Because color is understood to be part of a spectral continuum, most color theories are visually demonstrated on a circular or infinite format as either as a circle, wheel, or sphere.
-Often the models are based on a tri-chromatic color scheme that include three primary colors, three secondary colors, and six intermediate or tertiary colors, for a total of 12 main divisions. Some versions include 24 or more hues.
-There are many various versions of color wheels, each based on different color relationships, including additive, subtractive, process, and pigment oriented.
- Because Aristotle may be the first person to write a known book about color in his DeColoribus, he is considered the grandfather of color theory. He wrote that all colors were derived from different mixtures of elements in the natural world, specifically colors were a combination of sunlight, firelight, air, and/or water. His basic color palette included red, yellow, blue, green, violet, white, black, and brown.
- Italian Renaissance artist, scientist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci wrote another historically important color theory text that was published after his death in 1651. In his Treatise on Painting da Vinci proposed a palette based on physical manifestations of the natural world. Unlike Aristotle’s estimations of natural color though, each of da Vinci’s proposed six fundamental hues related specifically and directly to a natural element. For example, black related to night or darkness, blue to air, green to water, red to fire, yellow to earth, and white to light. He was also devoutly spiritual and regarded the natural world as a manifestation of spiritual reality.
- Isaac Newton is considered the father of modern color theory. He was the first to base his color observations on modern scientific investigative methods. In his 1701 book, Opticks, he documented his experiments with the diffraction of light through a prism, which is how he devised his color spectral range. He realized that the prism broke down, then bent white light to show the seven hues that make up the ROY G BIV color spectrum…red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet.
- In 1703 J. C. LeBlon developed the theory of three primary colors- red, yellow and blue. His premise was that these three colors were the purest, meaning they could not be broken down further, whereas all other hues could be made using some combination of them. LeBlon also developed the four primary color scheme used in printing, CMYK-cyan, magenta, yellow and black, which we still use in printing today.
- Poet Johann W. von Goethe was disappointed by Newton’s scientific methods, so rather than focusing on what happened with light, he zeroed in on what the eye perceives and visual phenomena. In 1810 he wrote Theory of Colors, which brings order to the world by organizing color. Goethe’s 1810 color wheel is like %Moses Harris’ 1766 color wheel from his book The Natural System of Color with colors equally spaced.
- Goethe’s additionally illustrates the relationship of the primary and secondary hues to their corresponding complementary pairs, which he called reciprocally evoked colors and placed opposite one another on the color wheel.
- Goethe observed light and shadow and realized that shadows are not purely black or gray, but also contain complementary colors. His writings influenced the Impressionists and Post Impressionists, especially Van Gogh. Van Gogh read Goethe’s color theory and used it in many paintings.
- French chemist Michel Eugene Chevreul developed the basic concepts of hue (color), purity (saturation), and value (luminosity) below.
- Ogden Rood, late 19th C. artist-scientist and contemporary of Chevreul’s, wrote Modern Chromatics. In it he outlined his theory of visual color mixing, which states that when two or more colors are placed side-by-side our eyes optically perceive the colors as blended. French pointillists, who thought of themselves as Divisionists, employed Rood’s visual color mixing theory.
- In his Divisionist methods, French Post Impressionist painter Georges Seurat practiced the chemist Chevreul’s ideas about color harmonies, and artist/scientist Rood’s visual color mixing theory. (Because he disapproved of the interpretation and application, Rood was apparently deeply upset.)
- 20th C. Swiss born artist-designer, color theorist and Bauhaus Design Professor Johannes Itten published a book The Art of Color, which describes his ideas as a furthering of his teacher Adolf Hölzel's color wheel.
-Itten developed a color sphere, and its flattened-out or ”mapped” version, which he called a 12-hued color star. Expanding out form the white center of it are various tints (color + added white) of the many hues leading to the points of the star where the purest most intense form of the hue ("pure" color...no added white, gray or black) is placed.
- His studies of color palettes and color interaction directly influenced his student Joseph Albers and op artists of the 1960’s Op Art movement, as well as other Western abstract color-based movements.
- Albers continued Itten's formal color investigations of how colors interact with one another. He studied optical illusions of color, making one color appear like two different colors, depending on which color ground it was placed. His format was always the same, rectangles or squares within squares; only the hues change. He also found that two different hues could be made to look the same, depending on which color ground they were place. In these works, to the exclusion of all else, formal color study is the subject. During the decades of the mid 20th C., Albers taught at Yale and had a tremendous influence on a group of artists who became known as the Minimalists. Minimalists Sol Lewit and Donald Judd were among his most renown 20th students.
- *Albert H. Munsell, considered the father of modern color classification, built upon Ogden Rood’s concept of color attributes, assigned a numerical notation system to the elements so that hues and their variations could be organized and classified, and created the first three-dimensional color wheel.
- The CIE color chart concept is based on the additive process RGB, or red, green and blue primaries. These values also related to the short, medium and long wavelengths of the human eye’s cones or color receptors. It was developed for the computer industry by the CIE, and is the basis for digital color systems*.
-Like the United Nations of light and color, the Commission International D’Eclairage, or CIE is an international non-profit organization focused on technical, scientific, and cultural applications of light and color. Its membership is voluntary. The CIE was formed in 1931 to develop a precise, device-independent color model or color matching system for use in both scientific and artistic applications. It’s design is based on mathematical algorithms and mechanics as opposed to the earlier color matching systems that were based on subjective visual identification.
- To define the fear of color and the use of color David Batchelor, a pioneer of contemporary color theory, coined the term chromophobia. It is also the title of one of his books.
- Batchelor argues that in the 1950s Abstract Expressionist painters departed from the mixing color on a palette and moved to pre-manufactured paint color selections, which were available in cans, and that it marks what he borrows from Duchamp, the notion of their use of a ”ready-made” color selection process.
-This move away from traditional color palette mixing, coincides with artists move away from the practical use of color theory, and from the use of color circles. Instead he argues that artists use manufactured color charts to select their palettes.
-He makes the case that this was the precursor to contemporary artists use of digital color selection…color selection via computer. This ultimately eliminated the brushwork or artists “hand”.
- Color forecasting is another form of color theorizing, not for classification and categorization but for purely aesthetic use by designers and artists. CAUS (The Color Association United States) may be one of the oldest color-forecasting services. Others include the Color Council and Trend Union.
Color Theory Time Line
...adapted from Steven Bleicher's
350 BCE - Aristotle- DeColorbus (The first book on color theory)
1500 - da Vinci- Treatise on Painting (published posthumously in 1651)
1703 - Newton - Opticks pulished
1703 - LeBlon - Develops concept of primary hues
1766 - Harris - Natural System of Color published
1818 - Goethe - Theory of Color published
1855 - Chevreul - The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colors, and Their Applications to the Arts published
1879 - Rood - Modern Chromatics published
1905 - Munsell - Color Notations published. Three Dimensional color wheel developed.
1916-18 - Ostwald - Color Science, The Color Primer and also The Color Atlas published
1920 - Itten - The Art of Color published (and Color Star developed)
1931 - CIE - the Commission International D'Eclairage develops chromaticity chart based on wavelengths not actual color.
1963 - Albers - Interaction of Color published
2000- Batchelor - Chromophobia published
AUGUST 2021- Studio Practice- Pink Drishti paintings exhibited in New York's "Upstate Art Weekend" at the Poetry Barn
Gina Dominique Concentric Pink Squares 1 cropped, acrylic and pencil on linen, 12 x 12", 2019
To prepare for the Fall 2021 semester, I spent much of the spring researching texts, and much of the summer writing a new-for-me "Relativity of Color" course. I just launched it this past week. After scanning dozens of texts, purchasing and looking more closely at about thirty, and narrowing my options for the required student text to three, I finally landed on Steven Bleicher's Contemporary Color Theory & Use. It's an inclusive examination of the topic, and ultimately inspired me to write a dozen what I think are exciting, relevant to the 21st C. Color Assignments.
The course will be delivered online asynchronously, so I've spent a good deal of time building the Bb course site, and am still in process researching to add to relevant visual slide lectures. (See Research/Lecture Notes on Color Perception (August 2021) to follow).
I've simultaneously been preparing to teach an Introduction to Painting course, as well as four BFA Thesis students. During the past days, I've met all 40 of my Fall 2021 students, and as the semester unfolds, we will establish our rhythms.
Soon I will shift my focus to reading for my own Thesis work. "The Affect Theory Reader" edited by Melissa Gregg and Gregory J. Seigworth, and "The Real Desire" by Robyn Ferrell sit beside me. Ferrell will be one of my 2-3 PhD Committee Advisors, so I especially look forward to this read.
Meanwhile, last weekend I participated in New York's "Upstate Art Weekend" at the Poetry Barn with six of my Pink Drishti paintings. See ginadominique.com/section/484362-2018-2… them here in the context of the portfolio. And earlier this summer I had eight new "Pandemic Paintings" at Firebox Art Studios LLC "Renewal" exhibition. I look forward to a beginning a new body of color-based work.
AUGUST 2021- Research- Notes on Color Perception
Illustration of how an incident beam illuminates an object, a leaf for example, which absorbs much of the incident beam's light and reflects back the light wave/s that it cannot absorb, called a reflective beam. Here it is the the green light wave or reflective beam that we see when we are perceive a leaf as green.
- During the 17th Century, Newton used a 3-dimensional prism to learn that white light contains the colors of the visible light spectrum. He showed how a prism refracts or bends the light shining through it to reveal seven hues: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet… also known as ROY G BIV.
- The reason we see a particular color is two-fold. One reason is due to what we call an incident beam or source light that directly hits objects, thus illuminating it. And the other is due to the reflected beam, which bounces back off of the lit objects. (See illustration of this phenomenon above.)
- The phenomenon of how the color of an object changes as the quality and type of light changes is known as metamerism.
- Using photoreceptors, the optic nerve, at the back of the eye, is responsible to transmit the light impulses to the brain. Photoreceptors are comprised of rods and cones. Rods see or perceive value or varying degrees of light and dark, and cones see or perceive color.
- The Ishihara Color Test is used to determine if someone has a color insufficiency.
- Synesthesia is another way of perceiving the world. David Hockney used the concept of Synesthesia in his painting Ravel’s Garden with Night Glow from L’Enfant et les Sortileges, 1980.
- Some people perceive all things, animate and even inanimate objects, with their auras. Auras are the electromagnetic fields that are made up of the same energy as light waves.
- Color can be used as a form of healing therapy, which is called chromotherapy.
JULY 2021- Research- PhD Project Proposal- Acceptance into Liverpool John Moores University's Transart Institute Practice Based PhD program
I am pleased to write that Transart Institute at Liverpool John Moores University accepted my application to begin a practice based PhD. This fall I will begin studies in New York City and online. To complete it, I will be doing much reading, researching, writing, painting, installation work, peer critiques, online advisory committee meetings, a 40 thousand word thesis, three annual in-person residencies...Oct in NYC, May in Berlin, and July in Liverpool...plus this process blog.
Things I post here, as in the past on this differently named blog, will include images of my studio work, paintings, installations, exhibition announcements, etc. And it will also include my academic/creative research, beginning with a look into my:
PROPOSED RESEARCH TOPIC OVERVIEW:
Towards a more inclusive 21st Century color theory, I propose to create new bodies of work based on my research into various color theories…color in advertising, color in art including the art of color mixing, color in art history, color and culture, and color in design including textile, digital, fashion, and other types of design, color and gender, color and psychology, color and race, color and sexuality, etc. I proposed my new new works, exhibitions, creative and academic writings ultimately point towards a globalist, inclusive or intersectional color theory...meaning one that is ecologically sound, formally astute, iconographically or symbolically described, feminist-based, gender-sensitive, global or culturally inclusive, socio-economically savvy, biographially and autobiographically aware, linguistically diverse, deconstructivity open ended, and psychoanalytically considered.
Either An Inclusive Color Theory or Global Color
The contextual and literary review of my work includes the history of color theories, color psychology, and how artists and art writers use color to discuss its relationship to culture, gender, race and other identity markers. For example, artists such as Tomashi Jackson, whose work deals with the connection between the linguistics of color theory and racialized America focus on color are relevant. In her Hyperallergic article “The Linguistic Overlap of Color Theory and Racism”, dated December 14, 2016, Risa Puleo writes on how Tomashi Jackson found her studies of Josef Albers’ color language was used to describe color perception, which mirrored the language of racialized segregation. That inspired Jackson to use color perception as an aesthetic strategy for investigating the history of America’s mid-late twentieth century school desegregation and ultimately to the contemporary re-segregation of public space. She creates large-scale abstract mixed media works that connect past, present, formalism, intuition, color theory, and human rights legislation.” https://hyperallergic.com/345021/the-linguistic-overlap-of-color-theory-and-racism/
And works by Becca Albee, who in her aperture “Full Color Feminism” interview with Annika Klein regarding Albee’s photographs and installation art says of her Radical Feminist Therapy: Working in the Context of Violence series that she researched different lifestyle-oriented and types of color-related therapies are also pertinent. Albee considers gender constructs surrounding the marketing of color and its relationship to capitalism. She says she found a style of color therapy called Aura-Soma that requires clients to go to a specialist who presents them with lots of bottles filled with different color liquids on a lighted grid. From them, the client picks the three or four bottles they are most attracted to. Albee states that because of the perfume bottles and the selection of colors in them indicates that it is specifically marketed to women. She also mentions that the session experience is like having a Tarot card reading, and that one is meant to buy their favorite bottles of color as “color therapy for the soul.” As a result of this research, and on more related color therapies, Albee made “photographs in the most desirable way possible because (she) wanted the work to exist within this paradox around color: you can be circumscribed and exhilarated by it; limited and animated by it.”
Writings by contemporary feminist-based post-colonialist art historian Griselda Pollock's writing, ex. “Avant-Garde Gambits 1888-1893: Gender and the Color of Art History” also contextualize my project interests. In this specific writing Pollock challenges art history's typical interpretation of various 17th-20th C. Western artists’ search of “the other” in far-away lands by arguing that these artists were cultural colonizers. She proposes that one of Gauguin’s paintings of his Tahitian wife… “refers and defers to Manet's Olympia (1863), a notorious avant-garde image of prostitution in the modern city. Where it was seen to differ was in the color of the nude: critics named it a "brown Olympia." Pollock’s careful deconstruction allows her to explore the ways in which racist discourse structures art and art history, posing questions of cultural, sexual and ethnic difference in order to make us all self-critical, not only in regard to the gender, but also to the color of art history.”
For more context, sociologists Angela R. Dixon and Edward E. Telles writing Skin Color and Colorism: Global Research, Concepts, and Measurement in Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 43, 2017, where they examine interdisciplinary global writings concerning skin color and colorism. They maintain that both are related to one's socio-economic status within a culture, as well as the culture's standing in the world. A focus is on Western societies, especially Latin America, where color and colorism are closely related to race and racism. And in Asia, where color and colorism have evolved separately from newer concepts of race and racism. Also noted is the fact that color consciousness and white supremacy increasingly appear to be united, globalized, and commodified, evidenced in the global multibillion-dollar skin-lightening industry. Finally, Dixon and Telles document the growing methodological attention to measurements of skin color and social science data that incorporate skin color measures.
Albers, Josef. Interaction of Color: New Complete Edition. Yale University Press in Association with the Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, 2009.
Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: the Invention of Color. Vintage Books, 2009.
Bleicher, Steven. Contemporary Color: THEORY & USE. Second ed., Delmar Cengage Learning, 2012.
Campbell, Tori. “Installation Art: Top 10 Artists Who Pushed the Genre to Its Limit.” ARTLAND, https://magazine.artland.com/installation-art-top-10-artists/
Coleman, Arica. “What's Intersectionality? Let These Scholars Explain the Theory and Its History.” Time.com, 28 Mar. 2019, time.com/5560575/intersectionality-theory/
Color Theory Chart, pixelsham, Color, Design, 24 Aug. 2019, www.pixelsham.com/2012/08/27/color-theory-chart/
Dickey, Tina. Color Creates Light: Studies with Hans Hofmann. Trillistar Books, 2011.
Eaverly, Mary Ann. Tan Men/Pale Women: Color and Gender in Archaic Greece and Egypt, a Comparative Approach. The University of Michigan Press, 2013.
Edwards, Betty. Color: a Course in Mastering the Art of Mixing Colors. Tarcher/Penguin, 2004.
Fider, Nicole A, and Natalia L Komarova. “Differences in Color Categorization Manifested by Males and Females: a Quantitative World Color Survey Study.” Humanities; Social Science Communications, 2019, www.researchgate.net/publication/337200632_Differences_in_color_categorization_manifested_by_males_and_females_a_
Finlay, Victoria. THE BRILLIANT HISTORY of Color in Art. Getty Museum, 2014.
Ford Shallbetter, Janet L. “Color Theory: Overview.” Color Theory Tutorial, Concepts, Essays and Color Basics, Creative Commons, 2013, worqx.com/color/index.htm
Gage, John. Color And Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction. University of California Press, 1993.
Gillman, Susan Kay, and Alys Eve Weinbaum. Next to the Color Line: Gender, Sexuality, and W.E.B. Du Bois. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. THEORY OF COLORS . Translated by Charles Lock Eastlake, M.I.T. Press, 1970.
Gottschalk, H. B. “The De Coloribus and Its Author.” Hermes, vol. 92, no. 1, 1964, pp. 59–85. JSTOR,
www.jstor.org/stable/4475288. Accessed 19 July 2021.
Gregg, Melissa, and Gregory J. Seigworth. THE AFFECT THEORY READER. Duke University Press, 2010.
Hamilton, Ann. “Indigo Blue.” Ann Hamilton Studio, Spelito Festival 1991 / SFMoma 2007, 2021, www.annhamiltonstudio.com/projects/indigoblue.html
Hornung, David. 1. Beginning Color Studies Pp. 40-41. Vimeo/Beginning Color Studies: Painting Swatches, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957782
Hornung, David. 2. Color Harmony: Unifying Mixing Strategies. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957862.
Hornung, David. 3. Applying Color Principles: Illusion of Transparency. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 18 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957918.
Hornung, David. 4. Color Research: Color Inventories. Vimeo, Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 19 July 2021, vimeo.com/394957975.
Hornung, David. Color: a Workshop for Artists & Designers. Third ed., Laurence King Publishing Ltd, 2021.
Itten, Johannes, and Ernst van Haagen. The Art of Color the Subjective Experience and Objective Rationale of Color. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1961.
Itten, Johannes, and Faber Birren. The Elements of Color: a Treatise on the Color System of J. Itten, Based on His Book the Art of Color. Edited and with a Foreword and Evaluation by F. Birren. Transl.by Ernst Van Hagen. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970.
Itten, Johannes. The Color Star. John Wiley & Son, 1986.
Klein , Annika. “Full Color Feminism.” Aperture, 2 Sept. 2020, aperture.org/editorial/becca-albee-feminism/
Lewis, Josie. The New Color Mixing Companion: Explore and Create Fresh and Vibrant Color Palettes with Paint, Collage, and Mixed Media. Quarry Books, an Imprint of The Quarto Group, 2019.
Long Now Foundation. Adam Rogers | Full Spectrum: The Science of Color and Modern Human Perception. YouTube, YouTube, 18 May 2021, www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7M2Dm1tE0U
Mollica, Patti. Color Theory: An Essential Guide to Color- from Basic Principles to Practical Applications. Walter Foster, 2013.
Newton, Isaac. Opticks or, a Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections and Colours of Light. The Third Edition, Corrected. By Sir Isaac Newton, Knt. Printed for William and John Innys, 1721.
Noyes Vanderpoel, Emily. Color Problems: a Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color. The Circadian Press, 1901.
Odita, Odili Donald. “The Essential Color Theory Artist You May Never Have Heard Of.” The Art of Education University, 4 May 2021, theartofeducation.edu/2021/05/26/the-essential-color-theory-artist-you-may-never-have-heard-of/
Pollock, Griselda. Avant-Garde Gambits 1888-1893: Gender and the Colour of Art History. Thames and Hudson, 1992.
Pollock, Griselda. Vision and Difference: Feminism, Femininity and Histories of Art. Routledge, 2015.
'Pro'Sobopha, Mgcineni. “The Body: Gender and the Politics of Representation.” Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, vol. 63, 2005, pp. 117–130., www.jstor.org/stable/4066640
Puleo, Risa. The Linguistic Overlap of Color Theory and Racism. 15 Dec. 2016, hyperallergic.com/345021/the-linguistic-overlap-of-color-theory-and-racism/
Rea, Naomi. “Portia Munson Talks Color and Empowerment at Frieze.” Artnet News, Artnet News, 7 Oct. 2016, news.artnet.com/art-world/portia-munson-frieze-pink-table-690620
Rogers, Adam. FULL SPECTRUM: HOW THE SCIENCE OF COLOR MADE US MODERN. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2021.
Rost, Lisa Charlotte. “An Alternative to Pink & Blue: Colors for Gender Data.” Datawrapper Blog, 8 Feb. 2021, blog.datawrapper.de/gendercolor/
Sidaway, Ian. Colour Mixing Bible: a Complete Guide for the Practising Artist in All Media. David & Charles, 2002.
Stewart, Jude. ROY G. BIV: An Exceedingly Surprising Book About Color. BLOOMSBURY, 2013.
Syme, P. WERNER'S NOMENCLATURE OF COLOURS: ADAPTED TO ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, CHEMISTRY, MINEROLOGY, ANATOMY... AND. Second ed., Natural History Museum, London, 2018.
Temkin, Ann. COLOR CHART: Reinventing Color, 1950 to Today. Museum of Modern Art, 2008.
Vanderpoel, Emily Noyes. Color Problems: a Practical Manual for the Lay Student of Color. Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903.
Willard, Christopher. “A Dystopia of Color Education.” Research, 1998, www.colormatters.com/73-color-resources/research?start=8
Wurmfeld, Sanford, et al. Color Documents: a Presentational Theory: Plates from Treatises Published 18th Century to the Present: 15 April - 7 June 1985, Hunter College Art Gallery, New York City. Hunter College Art Gallery, 1985.
Wurmfeld, Sanford. Color Seminar. Minus Space, 2019.
Zuffi, Stefano. Color In Art. Abrams, 2012.